Tag Archives: Yuggoth

Randolph Carter Traveling Back to Earth and Passing by Kynarth

We have been reviewing “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price for over three months – since late January 2017. While there are other topics in this tale that could continue to be discussed from both a scientific and metaphysical perspective, this subject will be the last, at least for now. In these last two articles, we briefly review some of the planets that Randolph Carter viewed as he traveled through time and space to eventually make it our Solar System, to Earth, in the year 1930.

Chandraputra                                                                                                          Randolph Carter in the body of a Yaddithian but disguised as Swami Chandraputra

As Carter left the dying world of Yaddith he sensed “…a hideous gnawing of cold, a cessation of menacing dreams, and a glance through the eye-plates of the envelope. Stars, clusters, nebulae, on every hand – and at last their outlines bore some kinship to the constellations of earth that he knew.” The recognition of familiar constellations was a strong indicator for Carter that he was in the proper Space-Time. Even if Carter was approaching our Solar System, if the constellations did not look familiar then that would have informed him that he arrived at the right place but the wrong time; Carter may have arrived at Earth millions of years ago when the Elder Things were building their aquatic cities or in the distant future when the Coleopteran (beetles) civilization is the dominant form of sentient life on Earth. However, he did make it to our Solar System in the first half of the 20th century.

The rest of this article discusses what Carter saw as he passed through the Solar System, heading toward Earth.  During this last leg of his journey he stated:

“He saw Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim, passed close to Neptune and glimpsed the hellish white fungi that spot it, learned an untellable secrete from the close-glimpsed mists of Jupiter and saw the horror on one of the satellites, and gazed at the Cyclopean ruins that sprawl over Mars’ ruddy disc.”

a_silver_sparkling_moon_by_johndoop-d5qjtv0 A Silver Sparkling Moon by John Doop (www.deviantart.com)

According to Joshi (Lovecraft and a World in Transition: Collected Essays on H.P. Lovecraft, 2014) Kynarth may be the “tenth” planet in our Solar System, with Yuggoth (also known as Pluto) being the ninth. Joshi’s support for this hypothesis is due to the fact that as Carter described his observations while traveling through the Solar System, they seem to be recorded in a sequence from furthest to closest; Kynarth and Yuggoth, then Neptune, then Jupiter and its satellites, then Mars. Thus, since Kynarth is named first it must be the tenth, or as we would call it now the ninth, planet.

It is generally accepted that Yuggoth is not a planet but a dwarf-planet, being one of many trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), in the Kuiper belt, which is a circumstellar disc of the Solar System beyond Neptune. The Kuiper belt spans a distance from the orbit of Neptune (about 30 AUs away) to approximately 150 AUs from the Sun. The Earth is 1 AU from the Sun. AU stands for Astronomical Unit.

Kuiper-belt-nasa The Kuiper Belt in relation to the gas planets of our Solar System (www.nasa.org)

If Yuggoth is a TNO, then Kynarth may be one as well.  In addition, considering how Kynarth and Yuggoth are stated together in the same clause, Kynarth may the largest moon of Yuggoth (Pluto) called Charon. It is interesting to note that the center of mass between Pluto and Charon is not Pluto itself but instead somewhere between the two bodies. In addition, Charon is over half the diameter of Pluto. Thus, instead of being a planet / moon system like the Earth and its moon, the Pluto / Charon system may be better described as being a double, dwarf-planet system.  Thus, “Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim” may actually be in reference to a double, dwarf-planet system of TNOs within the Kuiper belt.

Pluto-Charon-650        Is Pluto and its largest moon Charon really a double dwarf-planet system of Yuggoth and Kynarth?

The alternative to the Kynarth TNO hypothesis is Joshi’s, where Kynarth may be the true ninth planet in the Solar System, accepting the definition that Yuggoth is a dwarf-planet. Evidence for the presence of a large, planet beyond Neptune and on the outer rim of the Solar System can be found in the movements of some TNOs within the Kuiper Belt.

Essentially, some unusual observations have been made of some of the TNOs in the Kuiper Belt. Many of the TNOs all have perihelia (the points of their orbits closest to the Sun) that cluster near the ecliptic plane. A more detailed analysis of six of these objects show them to have clustered perihelia as well as elliptical orbits oriented the same way, about 30 degrees below the ecliptic plan. If there was no Ninth Planet then the gravitation influence of the other giant planets would have resulted in these smaller bodies drifting away from each other. It has been calculated that there is only a 0.007% chance that the existing arrangement of these TNOs is the result of chance (Kelly Beatty, Making the Case for “Planet Nine” in http://www.skyandtelescope.com). Something must be keeping these bodies corralled and in-line with the observed orbits and this is the case for a Ninth Planet. This Ninth Planet may be Kynarth, as mentioned by Carter in his travels back to Earth.

p9_kbo_orbits_labeled_1_ The clustering of TNO perihelia provide supporting evidence for the existence of a large 9th planet in our Solar System, beyond Neptune.

Based on the most recent calculations if the proposed Ninth Planet is indeed keeping these TNOs in line, it must be at least 10 times the mass of Earth and have an orbit around the Sun of between 10,000 to 20,000 years. So now the search is on to find this unknown world.

9thplanet                                                        Artist’s conception of Planet Nine in our Solar System

At this point in time, there is evidence for both the dwarf-planet hypothesis as well as the Ninth Planet hypothesis. Is Kynarth a small TNO caught in a gravitational dance with Yuggoth? Or is Kynarth a large “ice giant” orbiting the Sun over tens of thousands of years? Obviously, other studies of the outer rim are required.

Next time we conclude our discussions of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” by reviewing what Carter said about the other worlds in our Solar System. Thank you – Fred.

A Brief History of the Shining Trapezohedron

As previously discussed there appears to be an established methodology in the operation of the Shining Trapezohedron in H.P. Lovecraft’s “The Haunter in the Dark.” First, the Haunter needs to get the attention of a sentient entity and this is conducted through the trapezohedron. When the Haunter detects the presence of a sentient entity recognizing or acknowledging the trapezohedron through some sensory method, some type of connection is made. In our case this sensory method is sight, with photons of light reaching the light sensitive cells in the retina of our eyes (rods and cones) and then sending neural impulses to our brain for recognition. For other entities, the sensory method may be associated with heat or sound or even X-rays. Once this inter-dimensional connection of perception is made, complete darkness is required. Thus, it behooves the Haunter to put fear and paranoia into the receiving entity, forcing them to close the box. This puts the trapezohedron into complete darkness, which is required for the Haunter to enter our Universe. More on this and the biology of the Haunter relative to light in a later article; this article will review some of the historical accounts that have involved the Shining Trapezohedron.

shiningtrapezohedron_pro                                                                       Shining Trapezohedron

In “The Haunter in the Dark” Lovecraft describes the Shining Trapezohedron as “…a window on all time and space…” Again, this supports the concept that the trapezohedron functions as both a mode of communication as well as transportation. Also, as previously mentioned, if the information or matter conveyed by the stone uses technology that is beyond that of our Space-Time, the limitations associated with the speed of light may not apply to its use. Thus, peering into the trapezohedron may not be the same as looking at a star or nebula in a telescope where we are also looking into the distance past. The trapezohedron may be a “real time” window through time, space and beyond.

The Shining Trapezohedron was fashioned on Yuggoth and according to S.T. Joshi this appears to establish some type of connection among the Haunter, Yuggoth and/or Nyarlathotep (Lovecraft and a World in Transition: Collected Essays on H.P. Lovecraft by S.T. Joshi; 2014). It is said that the Old Ones brought the Shining Trapezohedron to Earth; however, it is not known if the term “Old Ones” refers to the Fungi from Yuggoth – the Mi-Go – or some other species. As stated in “Out of the Aeons” by H.P. Lovecraft and Hazel Heald, the Yuggoth Spawn existed on the dwarf planet eons before the arrival of the Mi-Go. The Yuggoth Spawn brought and deposited their patron daemon Ghatanothoa into the deep crypts of the fortress Yaddith-Gho on Yuggoth. It is certainly possible that the Yuggoth Spawn also brought the Shining Trapezohedron to Yuggoth, which was subsequently discovered by the Mi-Go and then eventually taken to Earth. In fact, the Mi-Go may have attempted to utilize the Trapezohedron as a weapon in their war against the Elder Things.

yuggothwatchtower_chaberwood_dev Yuggoth Watchtower by Chaberwood (www.deviantart.com). Was the Shining Trapezohedron housed in a structure like this on Yuggoth?

Eventually, the Elder Things possessed the Shining Trapezohedron. Once the stone was on Earth it was treasured and placed in a curious box by the crinoid things of Antarctica. This is obviously a reference to the Elder Things from At the Mountains of Madness.

The Haunter of the Dark goes on to document that the Shining Trapezohedron was salvaged from the ruins of the Elder Things (presumably from the Elder Things’ ancient cities in Antarctica) by the serpent-mean of Valusia (more on them in a future article). The first humans to gaze into the trapezohedron were from Lemuria and later from Atlantis. After the fall of the Atlantean civilization a Minoan fisherman found the stone in one of his nets and sold it to a merchant from “nighted Khem.”

It is said that the Pharaoh Nephren-Ka, also known as the Black Pharaoh, constructed an entire temple around the Shining Trapezohedron, placing it in a windowless crypt. Robert Bloch provides more information on the “atrocious sacrifices” Nephren-Ka did in his worship of Nyarlathotep (see Bloch’s story “Fane of the Black Pharaoh” in his book Mysteries of the Worm). Indeed, it is thought that Nyarlathotep gave Nephren-Ka the gift of prophecy and many of these prophecies were painted on the walls of the temple. Was this gift of prophecy simply Nephren-Ka harnessing the powers of observation associated with the Shining Trapezohedron? If the stone is a window of time and space, it could have easily been utilized as a means of predicting the future.

nephren_ka_the_black_pharaoh_by_mrzarono-d4btotz Pharaoh Nephren-Ka the Black Pharaoh by Mr. Zarono (www.deviantart.com)

Toward the end of “The Haunter of the Dark” Blake does say, “Is it not an avatar of Nyarlathotep, who in antique and shadowy Khem even took the form of man?” (H.P. Lovecraft). An avatar is a manifestation or representation of a deity or other entity. Thus, this is the connection that was cited by Joshi earlier in this article. Khem is simply one of the many names that the ancient people of Egypt called their country (Stephen S. Mehler; www.bibiotecapleyades.net). Also, if the Haunter is an avatar of Nyarlathotep, was Nephren-Ka another avatar of Nyarlathotep in ancient Khem?

As a result of his sacrifices, at least 100 documented victims, and the inter-dimensional power Nephren-Ka received from his dealings with Nyarlathotep through the Shining Trapezohedron, he was driven out of Khem, his name was stricken from history and all monuments to Nephren-Ka were destroyed. Next time we will discuss in more detail the relationship between the Black Pharaoh and Nyarlathotep and how Nephren-Ka used the Shining Trapezohedron. Thank you – Fred.

steve_purcell_stufftoblowyourmind-23-2014-04-threelobedburningeye                     Three-Lobed Burning Eye by Steve Purcell

Beyond Yuggoth and Heading for the Kuiper Belt

mi-go1 Mi-Go by Steve Maschuck

Last year in July the New Horizons spacecraft passed by the Yuggothian system and is now currently heading for the Kuiper Belt, which is a disc-shaped region beyond the orbit of Neptune that contains a variety of icy bodies including dwarf planets (like Yuggoth) and comets.  The Kuiper Belt includes estimated hundreds of thousands of icy bodies and a trillion or more comets (www.nasa.gov).  These icy bodies are representations of a time when our solar system was significantly younger.  Thus, by studying these bodies we can obtain a better understanding of how the solar system developed.

kuiper_belt-1 The expected journey of the New Horizons spacecraft through the Kuiper Belt (www.nasa.gov)

In April of 2016 New Horizons obtained some valuable data on one of these Kuiper Belt Objects (called KBOs), named 1994 JR1. This KBO is approximately 145 kilometers wide (9 miles wide) and orbits the sun at a distance of more than 5 billion kilometers (3 billion miles). The data recently collected revealed that 1994 JR1 is spinning relatively fast, at a rate of once every 5.4 hours (www.nasa.gov). Additionally, the collected data has helped to dispel the idea that JR1 may be a “quasi-satellite” of Pluto.

Do the Mi-Go use or mine the KBOs? Do some of the KBOs have strategic, interstellar or inter-dimensional value to the Mi-Go in their travels between our solar system and the outer voids? Why is 1994 JR1 spinning so fast? Is it being used as a source of energy? Is 1994 JR1 an artificial structure built by the Mi-Go? As New Horizons continues to survey and collect data on the Kuiper Belt maybe these questions will be answers. Or maybe the Mi-Go will have other plans for the New Horizons spacecraft.

mi_go_concept_01_by_nathanrosario Mi-Go by Nathan Rosario

Next time we will conclude our discussion of Ubbo-Sathla. Also, if you are interested in more information on the Lovecraftian Solar System, please check out our second Kickstarter campaign for the Journal of Lovecraftian Science, Volume 2 (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1081353216/journal-of-lovecraftian-science-volume-two).  Thank you – Fred.

Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 3 – Solar Winds Interacting with Yuggoth

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is the third of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers. This third article is a discussion on the interaction between Yuggoth and solar wind, charged particles and interstellar dust (Science, Volume 351, Issue 6279, 2016).

first-flybys-pluto-planets01 Artist’s rendition of New Horizons first flyby Yuggoth and one of its moons (www.nasa.gov)

One of the main objectives of the New Horizons mission was to describe the interaction between Yuggoth and its outer rim environment. Specifically, the mission was to quantify the rate at which atmospheric gases are escaping Yuggoth. The New Horizons spacecraft has three instruments designed to provide some information on these interactions on the outer rim of the solar system.

Solar winds are the stream of plasma-based, charged particles (electrons, protons and alpha particles) that escape the gravity of the sun due to their high energy and flow away from the sun at supersonic speeds. Some of these solar winds reach Yuggoth and the instruments on New Horizons estimated that their speed slows by approximately 20% on the sunward (upstream) side of the dwarf-planet. This slowing of the solar winds is largely due to Yuggoth’s ionosphere. While not directly measured, it is estimated that the electrical conductivity of Yuggoth’s ionosphere, which is sufficient to divert the solar wind.

Pluto_gases A demonstration of the solar winds reaching Yuggoth and being deflected off its atmosphere (www.nasa.gov)

Yuggoth’s atmosphere is known to be primarily composed of nitrogen (N2) with minor concentrations of methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO); Yuggoth’s low gravity indicates that a large flux of these molecules should be able to escape into space. However, the cold upper atmosphere, composed primarily of methane (CH4), limits the escape of molecules into space. This substantially reduces the amount of material available for further ionization and mass-loading of the solar winds (Bagenal, et.al., 2016; this is the actual paper in Science). Additionally, as mentioned above, the ionosphere of Yuggoth can divert the solar winds away from the sun-ward size of the dwarf planet.

The net result of these conditions may be a somewhat stable stream of organic molecules, particularly methane, flow into and remaining in the upper atmosphere. Such conditions may provide favorable conditions for organisms that could feed on methane. Indeed, there are a unique group of prokaryotic organisms (bacteria) that can actually feed on methane and generate their own oxygen for survival. Such methane-eating microbes, called methanotrophs (Methylobacter oxyfera and M. mesophilicum), exist on Earth and can be found in methane-rich, oxygen-poor muds. Maybe the Mi-Go utilize a very similar mode of heterotrophy, collecting or filtering methane from the upper portion of Yuggoth’s atmosphere, as a source of energy. It should be noted we have mentioned this idea in a past article; however, the recent data collected by New Horizons helps to further support the hypothesis of a somewhat stable atmosphere environment above Yuggoth.

methanotroph.org_JCLara_UniversityofWashington                                                                                                    A transmission electron micrograph of some methanotrophic bacteria; taken by J.C. Lara at University of Washington (www.methanotroph.org).

An alternative hypothesis is that the Mi-Go have a symbiotic relationship with methanotrophic bacteria, possibly sequestering the organisms in special organs. The Mi-Go use the bacteria to harvest methane and utilize this source of carbon for energy; in turn, the bacteria get a favorable microhabitat that travels through interstellar space to other worlds. So if this is the case where could the Mi-Go have obtained some methanotrophic bacteria? Based on The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana (2nd edition by Daniel Harms; 1998) the Mi-Go first visited Earth approximately 160 million year ago. By then the Earth was oxygenated due to the photosynthesis of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) over millions upon millions of years. In fact, Earth became oxygenated sometime around 2.4 billion years ago (www.bbc.co.uk). Thus, unless the Mi-Go who first arrived on Earth intentionally hunted for methanotrophic bacteria in the anoxic (no oxygen) muds of Earth, it would be fairly difficult to collect these organisms, so maybe they did not harvest these bacteria from the Earth.

MiGo_JbLee                            Mi-Go by Jb Lee

Mars is known to have trace amounts of methane in its atmosphere so maybe the red planet had some shallow pools or mud flats that contained methanotrophic bacteria in its past, although based on what we know about Mars this is highly unlikely. In contrast, we know Titan, Saturn’s second largest moon, is the only moon in our solar system with a dense, cold atmosphere, primarily composed of nitrogen (which is necessary in the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy) with trace amounts of methane (www.nasa.gov). In addition, more recent surveys through the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini mission have revealed that Titan actually has lakes and seas of hydrocarbons. These methane and ethane-filled bodies may harbor a variety of prokaryotic life that directly feeds off of these hydrocarbons. If so, it would have been a simple task for the Mi-Go to swoop down and collect some of these organisms. Once they had samples, it would be very easy for them to internally culture these bacteria in special organs and transfer sub-samples to clonal off-spring as a means of surviving in the upper atmosphere of Yuggoth, feeding on the methane.

MI-GO_monsterbrains.blogspot.com                                                                               Mi-Go (www.monsterbrains.blogspot.com)

Of course to verify such hypotheses some detailed anatomical and physiological examinations on dead Mi-Go would be required and unfortunately, being composed of matter from beyond our known universe, such investigations would be very short since this matter experiences accelerated levels of quantum decomposition.

Next time we wrap up our conversation on Ubbo-Sathla and associated implications of time travel. Thank you – Fred.

Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 2 – The Moons of Yuggoth

nh-pluto_moons_family_portrait The moons of the Yuggothian system (www.nasa.gov)

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is the second of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers. This second article is a discussion on the Yuggothian system, which includes at least six bodies that orbit a common center of mass at a single plane in nearly circular orbits (Science, Volume 351, Issue 6279, 2016).

Prior to the mid-2000’s only the binary dwarf planets Yuggoth and Charon were known to exist by humanity. Charon has been hypothesized to be a number of worlds described by Lovecraft. However, that will be the focus of a future discussion. The smaller moons Nix and Hydra, were discovered in May 2005, less than a year before the launch of the New Horizons spacecraft (Science, 2016). Two even smaller moons, Kerberos and Styx, were discovered in 2011 and 2012, respectively. An image of the relative scale of the moons of Yuggothian system is provided below.

new-horizons-sees-reddish-spot-on-pluto-s-moon-nix-487626-2                Relative scale of the Yuggothian system’s moons

The unique array of high-spatial resolution and spectral imaging instruments aboard New Horizons provided the first details images of the four small moons. All four of the small Yuggothian moons are highly elongate with a high amount of surface reflectance, which means all of the moons are composed of substances that are highly effective at reflecting radiant energy (which is essentially electromagnetic and gravitational radiation combined). This high degree of reflectance indicates that all of the moon have varying degrees of water-ice on their surfaces (Science, 2016). However, the small moons do exhibit some differences.

Nix and Hydra are mostly neutral or gray in color; however, some composite images of Nix revealed a red color in one of its craters (Science, 2016). Some of the leading hypotheses on this suggests that the red color is a residual amount of material left from an impacting body or that this red material was excavated from the moon’s sub-surface as a result of some past impact. An alternative hypothesis is that this material is somehow associated with the Mi-Go. If this material is organic, it might be some type of lichen-like organism that the Mi-Go brought to our Universe from theirs as a source of food. In contrast, this crater may be a mining site where the Mi-Go are excavating Nix to collect this material for some unknown purpose. In any event, of all the moons in the Yuggothian system, Nix may be the most valuable relative to the needs of the Mi-Go.

nh-10-4blog-frame4_annotated Composite view of Nix; note the reddish color (www.nasa.gov)

Based on the number of craters on the Yuggothian moons, it is estimated that sometime between 4 and 4.5 billion years ago the small moons were formed as a result of two Yuggoth-sized bodies slamming into one another. Thus, more than likely the Yuggothian system of two dwarf planets and four moons was naturally formed in the early history of our Universe and is not the result of planetary engineering by the Mi-Go. However, this does not rule out any major modifications that Mi-Go may have conducted once they arrived on the edge of our Solar System. At a minimum, large scale mining of some of the unknown natural resources found in the Yuggothian system may be evident.

mi_go__fungi_from_yuggoth_by_nigromaggot-d6g8m7q                     Mi-Go with a brain case by Nigromaggot (www.deviantart.com)

Next time we begin our scientific discussion of Lovecraft’s “The Lurking Fear.” Thank you – Fred.



Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 1 – The Atmosphere

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is one of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers.

fungus_from_yuggoth_by_doctorgurgul The Mi-Go, artwork by  Doctorgurgul, are known to live on Yuggoth (www.deviantart.com)

Some of the major objectives of the New Horizons probe included a characterization of structure and composition of Yuggoth’s atmosphere and to determine if its moon Charon has a detectable atmosphere. New Horizons has a wide array of sensors and instruments to collect data on Yuggoth.  The collection of near-surface temperature and pressure profiles through a radio wave instrument revealed that Yuggoth has an atmosphere that can produce weak horizontal winds.  Through the use of an ultraviolet spectrograph nitrogen and methane were detected in the Yuggothian atmosphere; additionally the photochemicals acetylene and ethylene were identified. There is also evidence for the presence of some unknown cooling agent in the atmosphere.  Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds have been documented in the thick, hazy atmosphere of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, and provide evidence for large liquid bodies (lakes?) on that moon. However, such photochemical reactions were not expected to be found in Yuggoth’s atmosphere.

image_3323_2e-Plutos-Blue-Skies_cdn4-sci-news.com The hazy blue atmosphere of Yuggoth may be due to tholin-like particles (www.cdn4-sci-news.com)

A thin but extensive, high altitude, cold atmosphere was detected by New Horizons around Yuggoth. The atmosphere has a bluish color, suggesting it is composed of very small, tholin-like particles. The word “tholins” was first coined and defined in 1979 by Carl Sagan and Bishun Khare in the paper, “Tholins: organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas,” published in the journal Nature.

20150721_tholin_flow_f537_Sarah_Horst_Johns_Hopkins_University                                      The production of tholins in the Sagan Khare experiments (Sarah Horst of Johns Hopkins University)

In 1970 Carl Sagan and others ran laboratory experiments at Cornell University where mixtures of organic and inorganic gases known to exist in the cosmos were irradiated with various energy sources (such as UV light or a spark discharge).  The results were a variety of complex organic compounds, forming a brown, sticky residue on the treatment flasks. Sagan and Khare called this material “tholins.” It is thought that tholins may be an important component of the atmosphere of Titan, comets and even Earth’s ancient oceans. Tholins may be the precursor for life. Indeed, it may be tholin-like compounds that the Elder Things used to either create life on Earth or increase its complexity by creating eukaryotic cells out of simple prokaryotic cells. In regard to Yuggoth some of dwarf planet’s red surface colors as well as those found at the pole of Charon its largest moon, may be due to the presence of tholins. Thus, these organic complexes may be responsible for both the reddish colors found on the surface of Yuggoth as well as for the bluish haze in its upper atmosphere.

NASA_2D34B0C700000578-3265178-image-a-18_1444321249557 The reddish color on some parts of Yuggoth may be due to deposits of organic complexes such as tholins (www.nasa.gov).

In conclusion the New Horizons probe discovered a surprisingly complex atmosphere surrounding Yuggoth. The unusually cold and hazy upper atmosphere suggests a lower escape rate for volatile compounds such as methane, indicating a recycling of these compounds thus creating a somewhat stable atmosphere. Perhaps the Mi-Go utilize these compounds through a form of chemotrophy, where these simple organic compounds, possibly being created through photochemical reactions, are used as a source of energy through oxidation. One could image the Mi-Go floating or cruising the upper atmosphere of Yuggoth, collecting tholin-like particles by some currently unrecognized ventral organ.

lovecraft___mi_go__earliest_design__by_kingovrats-d4zzgrc Early interpretation of a Mi-Go by KingOvRats (www.deviantart.com)

The next article in this series will focus on the satellites of Yuggoth. Thank you – Fred.

Lovecraft and Planet Nine, Part 2

In the previous article we discussed the evidence that has been recently presented by Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown of CalTech for the existence of a large, ninth planet beyond the orbit of Neptune. A large part of this evidence focuses on how objects in the Kuiper Belt all have orbits oriented in the same direction at about 30 degrees below the ecliptic plan. This hypothetical 9th Planet would be at least 10 times larger in mass relative to the Earth and its orbit around the Sun would be between 10,000 to 20,000 years. We also pointed to the fact that differences between the Newtonian predictions and the observations of the orbit of Uranus led to the discovery of Neptune. Thus, Neptune was first discovered through mathematics before the actual planet was observed. A similar situation may apply to this 9th Planet.

Planet-9-Art-NEWS-WEB                                               An artist’s interpretation of what the 9th planet in our solar system may look like (www.nasa.gov)

Prior to the discovery of Yuggoth (known to some as Pluto), there was much speculation over the existence of a 9th Planet, again to explain slight differences between predicted and observed orbits of Uranus and Neptune and Lovecraft mentioned this a number of times in his articles on astronomy. In a letter Lovecraft wrote to Scientific American in 1906 he noted that seven comets have their aphelia (the  point in the orbit of a body that is furthest from the Sun) at a point where a planet would be revolving around the Sun at a distance of about 100 astronomical units (a.u.). Remember the distance from Earth to the Sun is 1 a.u. and the Kuiper Belt is a zone on the outer rim of our solar system between 50 and 150 a.u. from the Sun. To put this in context relative to Pluto, that dwarf planet is 39.5 a.u. from the Sun. Lovecraft also noted that “a great many comets cluster around a point 50 a.u. out, where a large body might revolve.” So even before Pluto was discovered in 1930, the presence of a 9th Planet was suggested. Lovecraft concludes the letter by suggesting that the observatories of the world should band together and look for this hypothetical world (Collected Essays, Volume 3: Science. H.P. Lovecraft; edited by S.T. Joshi, 2005).

In an article written for the Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner later in 1906, titled “Are There Undiscovered Planets: Boundaries of Our System Still Shrouded in Obscurity,” Lovecraft noted that for most of human history only six planets were known until the discovery of Uranus in 1781 and Neptune in 1846. Lovecraft then went on to state that the two places in the solar system where additional planets could potentially be discovered was between Mercury and the Sun and beyond Neptune.

Image-of-Ladd-Observatory                Ladd Observatory of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island

Pluto was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh and Lovecraft certainly took note:

“Incidentally—you have no doubt read reports of the discovery of the new trans-Neptunian planet . . . . a thing which excites me more than any other happening of recent times.”

“The first real planet to be discovered since 1846 & only the third in the history of the human race! One wonders what it is like, & what dim-litten fungi may sprout coldly on its frozen surface! I think I shall suggest its being named Yuggoth! Reports make it smaller than Uranus & Neptune, but larger than the earth.”

These quotes are from a letter to Ms. Elizabeth Toldridge from 1 April 1930 (citation found at http://www.hplovecraft.com). Thus, only weeks after the discovery of Pluto was officially announced on 13 March 1930, Lovecraft was already suggesting that the then-named planet be called Yuggoth. However, Lovecraft was clearly wrong about Yuggoth being larger than Earth. In fact, as shown below Yuggoth is smaller than our moon, which is one of the reasons it has been classified as a dwarf-planet. Additionally, the small size of Yuggoth means that it could not explain the perturbations associated with the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. Some other celestial body must be contributing to the observed conditions. Hence, the presence of a large, 9th Planet could help to explain these observed perturbations, just as the presence Uranus helps to explain some of the perturbations associated with the orbit of Neptune.

xena_size_compare                        Comparing the size of Earth to Yuggoth, another dwarf-planet Xena and the moon


uranus%20and%20neptune                       A comparison of Earth, Uranus, Neptune and Yuggoth (Pluto)

So what exactly is the 9th Planet in the Lovecraftian Solar System? While this large, semi-galactic planet may actually be Yuggoth, based on most of Lovecraft’s writings Pluto is Yuggoth. For example, in “The Haunter in the Dark” Shaggai is mentioned as being more distant than Yuggoth and may be the 10th planet of our solar system. However, as noted by Joshi the first mention of Yuggoth by Lovecraft is in The Fungi of Yuggoth where it is described as “past the starry voids.” According to Joshi this may indicate that Yuggoth is entirely out of our solar system, even out of our known Universe (Lovecraft and a World in Transition: Collected Essays on H.P. Lovecraft, by S.T. Joshi from Hippocampus Press, 2014).  Such suggestions may indicate that Yuggoth is a celestial body that “phases” or travels through universes, and this may be how the Mi-Go travel inter-dimensionally. The Mi-Go are said not to made of the same type of matter that we are – maybe Yuggoth is similarly composed of extra-dimensional matter.


Mi-Go, the Fungi from Yuggoth by Corvenicenail (www.deviantart.com)

While the extra-dimensional hypothesis for Yuggoth is intriguing, based on Lovecraft’s work it is more than likely Pluto is Yuggoth – once thought of being the 9th planet of the solar system and recently re-categorized as a dwarf planet. So is the true 9th planet Shaggai? Possibly, however another candidate is Kynarth, which is only mentioned once in “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” where Randolph Carter sees Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim (Joshi, 2014).  Joshi hypothesizes that Kynarth may be the 10th planet but based on the wording “Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim” I suggest they sound being fairly close to each other so Kynarth may be Yuggoth’s (Pluto’s) “moon” Charon.


If the dwarf-planet Pluto is Yuggoth, is its moon known as Charon actually Kynarth?

So if the 9th Planet is Shaggai, what do we know about it? That will be the focus of the next article. Thank you – Fred.

Lovecraft and Planet Nine, Part 1

I would like to discuss the recent data that has been presented earlier this week to support the hypothesis that there may be a ninth planet beyond Neptune. Additionally, I will also discuss H.P. Lovecraft’s pre-Pluto comments about the existence of a ninth planet and how such a world may be an important component of the Lovecraftian Solar System. Thus, this article is the first of a two part discussion on this subject.

For the sake of augment I am adhering to a resolution passed in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union in stating that Yuggoth (known to many as Pluto) is classified as a dwarf planet. Whether you agree or disagree with the decision, that is the official description of Yuggoth so if another, larger body is found beyond Neptune, it would officially be the 9th planet of our Solar System. Many people are upset with the idea that Pluto has been demoted from being a planet and I have heard others complain that scientists are always trying to confuse us or can’t make their minds up; well, I thought I would talk a little about how science works before we discuss the evidence for a ninth planet in our solar system.

TNOs00-xenosystems.netShowing the relative size of some of the largest trans-Neptunian bodies relative to Earth. Note the size of Pluto and its largest moon Charon relative to the other objects (www.xenosystems.net).

I always like to say science is not math.  Math is sometimes called a universal truth; one plus one will always equal two (at least in our known universe). Thus, most forms of mathematics are deductive reasoning; a set of rules are established and dictates what the answers will be. As long as the established rules (called axioms) are established as true, you can be absolutely sure of the conclusions. For example, Pythagoras’s theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite of the right angle of a triangle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides of a triangle. Thus, it is a well-established fact that if you have a right triangle and run through these calculations you will get the expected answer beyond a shadow of a doubt.

6103542_orig                                                    The mathematical truth of the Pythagorean theorem.

In contrast, much of science is inductive reasoning; that is, broad generations are made from specific observations. Observations are made and a hypothesis is constructed that is then tested either through additional observations and the establishment of predictive model and/or through experimentation. If enough data and conclusions are developed that supports the hypothesis, then it can eventually become a theory. While theories are not absolute truth as can be established in mathematics, they always come closer to the truth with the accumulation of more data. Thus, the theories of gravity, the atom and evolution are theories because they all have an incredible amount of observable and experimental evidence for their support. No alternative theories have come close to describing / predicting conditions in our world and reality as these theories do.

So in the case of the 9th planet, some evidence has recently been presented for its existence.  Again, I hear a lot of people say “I’ll believe it when I can see it.” However, I would remind everyone that Neptune was actually first discovered through mathematical calculations conducted by John Couch Adams before it was ever observed in the night sky. As noted in Mark Littmann’s book, Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System (1990), Neptune is the planet found on a sheet of paper. Using only mathematics, Adams predicted the existence and position of Neptune in order to explain discrepancies in the orbit of Uranus. The same conclusions were reached through mathematics by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier around the same time. The confirmation of the existence of Neptune was made by the astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle. These efforts, to discover the existence of a large planet through mathematics is a testament to the power of the Laws of Newton and Kepler.  In this case discrepancies in the mathematics of how planetary bodies obey the Laws of Newton were used to form a hypothesis, which was then confirmed through observations. A similar approach is being used to seek out and confirm the existence of the 9th Planet (here called Planet Nine).

yuggoth_watchtower_by_caberwood-d6tm8se Yuggoth Watchtower by Chaberwood (www.deviantart.com)

Essentially, some unusual observations have been made of objects in the Kuiper Belt, a zone of the solar system that is approximately 150 astronomical units (a.u.) from the Sun but never gets closer than 50 a.u. As a point of reference, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is 1 a.u. Also, the Kuiper Belt is the outer edge of our solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune, that contains a variety of bodies including comets and asteroids (see the earlier illustration of tran-Neptunian objects). Essentially, these bodies all have perihelia (the points of their orbits closest to the Sun) that cluster near the ecliptic plane. A more detailed analysis of six of these objects show them to have clustered perihelia as well as elliptical orbits oriented the same way, about 30 degrees below the ecliptic plan. If there was no Planet Nine then the gravitation influence of the other giant planets would have resulted in these smaller bodies drifting away from each other. It has been calculated that there is only a 0.007% change that the existing arrangement of these trans-Neptunian objects is the result of chance (Kelly Beatty, Making the Case for “Planet Nine” in http://www.skyandtelescope.com). Something must be keeping these bodies corralled and in-line with the observed orbits and this is the case for Planet Nine.

Planet-Nine-orbit-plotsOrbits from six trans-Neptunian objective in our solar system. These observed orbits provide evidence for the existence of Planet Nine (from Caltech / Robert Hurt).

Based on the most recent calculations the proposed planet needed to keep these trans-Neptunian bodies in line, must be at least 10 times of Earth’s mass and have an orbit around the Sun of between 10,000 to 20,000 years. So now the search is on to find this unknown world.

In Part 2 we will review Lovecraft’s thoughts on a ninth planet before Pluto was discovered and discuss Planet Nine’s role in the Lovecraftian Solar System. Thank you – Fred.

More Notes on Yuggoth, Part 8


A view of Yuggoth from the New Horizons spacecraft. Is this what the Mi-Go “see” when they enter the thin atmosphere of this outpost (www.nasa.gov)?

Shown below is an enhanced false color image of the terrain of Yuggoth (to some known as Pluto). These 3_D topographic maps identify two mountains, named Wright Mons and Piccard Mons. The color blue represents lower elevations, green is intermediate and brown represents higher elevations (www.nasa.gov).


A 3-D false color image of the surface of Yuggoth (www.nasa.gov).

Based on the terrain of these two mountains it is possible that they are volcanoes or more appropriately named  cryovolcanoes. Instead of spewing molten rock as volcanoes do on Earth, cryovolcanoes may spit out a melted slurry of material such as water ice, nitrogen, ammonia or methane (www.nasa.gov). Do the Mi-Go use these cryovolcanoes as a source of energy or food?  More to come from New Horizons!


A Few More Notes on Yuggoth and Other Subjects

More photos have been released by NASA on the detailS of Yuggoth (Pluto to some). The photo below shows some “rounded and bizarrely textured mountains” that have been named the Tartarus Dorsa.


Textured Mountains on the surface of Yuggoth (NASA)

The strange photo shown below is the closest the New Horizons spacecraft got to Yuggoth. The photo was taken on 14 July 2015 and is a high-resolution image of two ice mountains. The image is approximately 75 miles over the dwarf planet’s surface.


Ice Mountains on the surface of Yuggoth (NASA)

In addition to these images, apparently NASA will be making a major announcement about Mars on the 28th of September 2015. My guess is they found evidence for water either on the surface or sub-surface of the planet. Shown below is a composited “selfie” the Mars rover Curiosity took. We will have to wait and see what this special announcement is.


Mars rover Curiosity taking a “selfie” (NASA)

A few other items:

  1. Recently, I have not answered some of the latest  questions on the WordPress page; I have been very busy lately but will address the questions in the near future.
  2. I was thrilled to post a guest article earlier in the week and plan to post others as they become available.
  3. I want to give heads up that October will be “Reanimator” month – I plan on discussing the science behind the story and movie.
  4. Finally, I am excited that the printed version of “Journal of Lovecraftian Science, Volume 1” will soon be complete! I want to thank all who contributed toward the Kickstarter. Once the print versions are mailed to contributors the digital version of the document will be made available on Amazon. Steve Maschuck and I have plans for “Volume 2” and I will let everyone know about that Kickstarter when it is available. Again thank you one and all!