Tag Archives: Mi-Go

How the Universe Expanded in H.P. Lovecraft’s Lifetime: Part 2, The Whisperer in Darkness

o-HUBBLE-UV-1000A view through the Hubble telescope of thousands of galaxies in one small patch of space

As previously discussed, while H.P. Lovecraft was writing his astronomical articles in the early 20th century, primarily between 1906 to 1918 (Collected Essays Volume 3: Science H.P. Lovecraft, edited by S.T. Joshi, 2005), the Galaxy was essentially thought of as our Universe.  However, on 30 December 1924 when Edwin Hubble publicly announced the discovery of other galaxies, the perception of our Universe substantially increased in size.  Searching through Lovecraft’s fiction, his collection of essays associated with Science (Joshi, 2005) and Joshi’s biography on Lovecraft, I Am Providence: The Life and Times of H.P. Lovecraft (Joshi, 2013), I could find no specific reference to Hubble.  However, I have not reviewed all of his letters so Lovecraft may have mentioned Hubble there.  This significant change in our view of the Universe from an Island Galaxy in a starless void to an expanding Universe filled with billions of galaxies, does seem to creep into Lovecraft’s later fiction. Part of this is due to when Hubble made his announcement in late 1924 and part of this due to changes in Lovecraft’s style in writing and his subject matter.

In Lovecraft’s early tales, from 1917 to 1920-21, there is almost no mention of the word galaxy. The exception was a passing reference in “From Beyond,” written in 1920, where once the Tillinghast machine is turned on the protagonist was describing what he observed which included “I seemed for an instant to behold a patch of strange night sky filled with shining revolving spheres, and as it receded I saw that the glowing suns formed a constellation or galaxy of settled shape; this shape being the distorted fact of Crawford Tillinghast.” Even here the word “galaxy” is being used as a descriptive term or metaphysical point of view rather than as a purely scientific term.

It would not be until “The Whisperer in Darkness,” written in 1930, that Lovecraft would use the word galaxy from a scientific perspective. Indeed, this tale may be a pivotal point for Lovecraft in his view of both the Cosmos and cosmic horror and the word “galaxy” may be an indicator of this.

lvcrft_by_terrordelacomarca-d96cprzThe Whisperer in Darkness, artwork by Terrordelacomarca (www.deviantart.com)

The first time the word galaxy is used in “The Whisperer in Darkness” is in a letter Henry Wentworth Akeley writes to Albert N. Wilmarth, professor of literature and folklore at Miskatonic University. In it Akeley is documenting his encounters with the Mi-Go in his remote farmhouse in upstate Vermont. In the letter Akeley states that they Mi-Go may be talking to him, although he also questions whether this is a dream or if he is going mad. At one point Akeley states, “They don’t mean to let me get to California now – they want to take me off alive, or what theoretically and mentally amounts to alive – not only to Yuggoth but beyond that – away outside the galaxy and possibly beyond the last curved rim of space.” This description sounds like the old “one galaxy – one universe” hypothesis proposed by Sir William Herschel and discussed by Lovecraft in some of his astronomical articles (Joshi, 2005).

In sharp contrast to the first time the word galaxy is used, later when “pseudo-Akeley” is speaking with Wilmarth at the farmhouse he states, “There is nothing they [the Mi-Go] can’t do with the mind and body of living organisms. I expect to visit other planets and even other stars and galaxies.” Here Lovecraft is obviously conveying the multiple galaxies in one Universe view, which was firmly established in the scientific community by 1925. So, was this simply a minor grammatical slip up? Or in the tale did the Mi-Go reveal to Akeley and later to Wilmarth, that the Universe was composed of billions of galaxies? Remember according to Akeley the Mi-Go wanted humanity to discover Yuggoth, known to humans as Pluto, on 18th February 1930. Perhaps they were also revealing or at least confirming what Hubble found five years earlier, that the Universe is not simply the Milky Way Galaxy.

the_dreamer_by_brett_neufeld-dbhg32hThe Dreamer by Brett Neufeld

Later, pseudo-Akeley talks about some of the entities in the Mi-Go cylinders, stating that three are human, six are fungoid beings who can’t navigate space corporeally and two are from Neptune. He then states that the rest are “…from the central caverns of an especially interesting dark star beyond the galaxy.” Based on this statement this dark star is out of the Milky Way but not necessarily found in another galaxy.

It is interested that Lovecraft identifies a dark star. Based on Newtonian physics a dark star is a theoretical body of such large mass that any light it emits is trapped by its own gravity resulting in a “dark” star. Eventually, this term dark star was replaced by “black hole” (The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos by Brain Greene, 2011). However, a dark star is also categorized as a proto-star that may have existed in the early Universe before conventional stars were able to form. This type of dark star would be composed largely of normal matter but would also have a relatively high amount of neutralino dark matter. Such dark stars would be composed of clouds of hydrogen and helium with a diameter substantially larger in size than conventional stars. Such dark stars would have a diameter of 4 to 2,000 astronomical units (AUs). Remember, 1 AU is the distance from the Earth to the Sun. In addition, such dark stars would have a surface temperature low enough that the emitted radiation would be invisible to the naked eye. Would such temperatures be conducive for the development and evolution of life?

MikeDubischwww.themikedubischsketchbook.blogspot.com_lovecraft-cthulhu-hp-lovecraft                                        Old Ones from a Dark Star by Mike Dubisch (www.themikedubischsketchbook.blogspot.com)

Back to “The Whisperer in Darkness” in speaking to Akeley, the human in the Mi-Go cylinder states, “Do you realise what it means when I say I have been on thirty-seven different celestial bodies – planets, dark stars, and less definable objects – including eight outside our galaxy and two outside the curved cosmos of space time?” This statement – outside our galaxy and outside the curved space-time – mirrors Akeley’s earlier statement in his letter to Wilmarth. While it may appear that Lovecraft is flip-flopping in the idea of the Universe being composed on the Milky Way or of billions of galaxies, I hypothesize that this was intentional. When a human speaks about the Universe, whether it is Akeley or the human mind in the cylinder, the older concept of the Milky Way essentially being the Universe is cited. However, when pseudo-Akeley speaks about the Universe, it is clear the Mi-Go know the Universe is substantially larger and filled with billions of galaxies. I think this conveys the fact that the Mi-Go have a better understanding of the cosmos than humans.

whisperer                              The Whisperer in Darkness (Nyarlathotep) – the pseudo-Akeley by Michael Bukowski (www.yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com)

Next time we will continue to discuss how Lovecraft uses the word galaxy in his later tales. Thank you – Fred.

A Brief History of the Shining Trapezohedron

As previously discussed there appears to be an established methodology in the operation of the Shining Trapezohedron in H.P. Lovecraft’s “The Haunter in the Dark.” First, the Haunter needs to get the attention of a sentient entity and this is conducted through the trapezohedron. When the Haunter detects the presence of a sentient entity recognizing or acknowledging the trapezohedron through some sensory method, some type of connection is made. In our case this sensory method is sight, with photons of light reaching the light sensitive cells in the retina of our eyes (rods and cones) and then sending neural impulses to our brain for recognition. For other entities, the sensory method may be associated with heat or sound or even X-rays. Once this inter-dimensional connection of perception is made, complete darkness is required. Thus, it behooves the Haunter to put fear and paranoia into the receiving entity, forcing them to close the box. This puts the trapezohedron into complete darkness, which is required for the Haunter to enter our Universe. More on this and the biology of the Haunter relative to light in a later article; this article will review some of the historical accounts that have involved the Shining Trapezohedron.

shiningtrapezohedron_pro                                                                       Shining Trapezohedron

In “The Haunter in the Dark” Lovecraft describes the Shining Trapezohedron as “…a window on all time and space…” Again, this supports the concept that the trapezohedron functions as both a mode of communication as well as transportation. Also, as previously mentioned, if the information or matter conveyed by the stone uses technology that is beyond that of our Space-Time, the limitations associated with the speed of light may not apply to its use. Thus, peering into the trapezohedron may not be the same as looking at a star or nebula in a telescope where we are also looking into the distance past. The trapezohedron may be a “real time” window through time, space and beyond.

The Shining Trapezohedron was fashioned on Yuggoth and according to S.T. Joshi this appears to establish some type of connection among the Haunter, Yuggoth and/or Nyarlathotep (Lovecraft and a World in Transition: Collected Essays on H.P. Lovecraft by S.T. Joshi; 2014). It is said that the Old Ones brought the Shining Trapezohedron to Earth; however, it is not known if the term “Old Ones” refers to the Fungi from Yuggoth – the Mi-Go – or some other species. As stated in “Out of the Aeons” by H.P. Lovecraft and Hazel Heald, the Yuggoth Spawn existed on the dwarf planet eons before the arrival of the Mi-Go. The Yuggoth Spawn brought and deposited their patron daemon Ghatanothoa into the deep crypts of the fortress Yaddith-Gho on Yuggoth. It is certainly possible that the Yuggoth Spawn also brought the Shining Trapezohedron to Yuggoth, which was subsequently discovered by the Mi-Go and then eventually taken to Earth. In fact, the Mi-Go may have attempted to utilize the Trapezohedron as a weapon in their war against the Elder Things.

yuggothwatchtower_chaberwood_dev Yuggoth Watchtower by Chaberwood (www.deviantart.com). Was the Shining Trapezohedron housed in a structure like this on Yuggoth?

Eventually, the Elder Things possessed the Shining Trapezohedron. Once the stone was on Earth it was treasured and placed in a curious box by the crinoid things of Antarctica. This is obviously a reference to the Elder Things from At the Mountains of Madness.

The Haunter of the Dark goes on to document that the Shining Trapezohedron was salvaged from the ruins of the Elder Things (presumably from the Elder Things’ ancient cities in Antarctica) by the serpent-mean of Valusia (more on them in a future article). The first humans to gaze into the trapezohedron were from Lemuria and later from Atlantis. After the fall of the Atlantean civilization a Minoan fisherman found the stone in one of his nets and sold it to a merchant from “nighted Khem.”

It is said that the Pharaoh Nephren-Ka, also known as the Black Pharaoh, constructed an entire temple around the Shining Trapezohedron, placing it in a windowless crypt. Robert Bloch provides more information on the “atrocious sacrifices” Nephren-Ka did in his worship of Nyarlathotep (see Bloch’s story “Fane of the Black Pharaoh” in his book Mysteries of the Worm). Indeed, it is thought that Nyarlathotep gave Nephren-Ka the gift of prophecy and many of these prophecies were painted on the walls of the temple. Was this gift of prophecy simply Nephren-Ka harnessing the powers of observation associated with the Shining Trapezohedron? If the stone is a window of time and space, it could have easily been utilized as a means of predicting the future.

nephren_ka_the_black_pharaoh_by_mrzarono-d4btotz Pharaoh Nephren-Ka the Black Pharaoh by Mr. Zarono (www.deviantart.com)

Toward the end of “The Haunter of the Dark” Blake does say, “Is it not an avatar of Nyarlathotep, who in antique and shadowy Khem even took the form of man?” (H.P. Lovecraft). An avatar is a manifestation or representation of a deity or other entity. Thus, this is the connection that was cited by Joshi earlier in this article. Khem is simply one of the many names that the ancient people of Egypt called their country (Stephen S. Mehler; www.bibiotecapleyades.net). Also, if the Haunter is an avatar of Nyarlathotep, was Nephren-Ka another avatar of Nyarlathotep in ancient Khem?

As a result of his sacrifices, at least 100 documented victims, and the inter-dimensional power Nephren-Ka received from his dealings with Nyarlathotep through the Shining Trapezohedron, he was driven out of Khem, his name was stricken from history and all monuments to Nephren-Ka were destroyed. Next time we will discuss in more detail the relationship between the Black Pharaoh and Nyarlathotep and how Nephren-Ka used the Shining Trapezohedron. Thank you – Fred.

steve_purcell_stufftoblowyourmind-23-2014-04-threelobedburningeye                     Three-Lobed Burning Eye by Steve Purcell

Beyond Yuggoth and Heading for the Kuiper Belt

mi-go1 Mi-Go by Steve Maschuck

Last year in July the New Horizons spacecraft passed by the Yuggothian system and is now currently heading for the Kuiper Belt, which is a disc-shaped region beyond the orbit of Neptune that contains a variety of icy bodies including dwarf planets (like Yuggoth) and comets.  The Kuiper Belt includes estimated hundreds of thousands of icy bodies and a trillion or more comets (www.nasa.gov).  These icy bodies are representations of a time when our solar system was significantly younger.  Thus, by studying these bodies we can obtain a better understanding of how the solar system developed.

kuiper_belt-1 The expected journey of the New Horizons spacecraft through the Kuiper Belt (www.nasa.gov)

In April of 2016 New Horizons obtained some valuable data on one of these Kuiper Belt Objects (called KBOs), named 1994 JR1. This KBO is approximately 145 kilometers wide (9 miles wide) and orbits the sun at a distance of more than 5 billion kilometers (3 billion miles). The data recently collected revealed that 1994 JR1 is spinning relatively fast, at a rate of once every 5.4 hours (www.nasa.gov). Additionally, the collected data has helped to dispel the idea that JR1 may be a “quasi-satellite” of Pluto.

Do the Mi-Go use or mine the KBOs? Do some of the KBOs have strategic, interstellar or inter-dimensional value to the Mi-Go in their travels between our solar system and the outer voids? Why is 1994 JR1 spinning so fast? Is it being used as a source of energy? Is 1994 JR1 an artificial structure built by the Mi-Go? As New Horizons continues to survey and collect data on the Kuiper Belt maybe these questions will be answers. Or maybe the Mi-Go will have other plans for the New Horizons spacecraft.

mi_go_concept_01_by_nathanrosario Mi-Go by Nathan Rosario

Next time we will conclude our discussion of Ubbo-Sathla. Also, if you are interested in more information on the Lovecraftian Solar System, please check out our second Kickstarter campaign for the Journal of Lovecraftian Science, Volume 2 (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1081353216/journal-of-lovecraftian-science-volume-two).  Thank you – Fred.

Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 3 – Solar Winds Interacting with Yuggoth

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is the third of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers. This third article is a discussion on the interaction between Yuggoth and solar wind, charged particles and interstellar dust (Science, Volume 351, Issue 6279, 2016).

first-flybys-pluto-planets01 Artist’s rendition of New Horizons first flyby Yuggoth and one of its moons (www.nasa.gov)

One of the main objectives of the New Horizons mission was to describe the interaction between Yuggoth and its outer rim environment. Specifically, the mission was to quantify the rate at which atmospheric gases are escaping Yuggoth. The New Horizons spacecraft has three instruments designed to provide some information on these interactions on the outer rim of the solar system.

Solar winds are the stream of plasma-based, charged particles (electrons, protons and alpha particles) that escape the gravity of the sun due to their high energy and flow away from the sun at supersonic speeds. Some of these solar winds reach Yuggoth and the instruments on New Horizons estimated that their speed slows by approximately 20% on the sunward (upstream) side of the dwarf-planet. This slowing of the solar winds is largely due to Yuggoth’s ionosphere. While not directly measured, it is estimated that the electrical conductivity of Yuggoth’s ionosphere, which is sufficient to divert the solar wind.

Pluto_gases A demonstration of the solar winds reaching Yuggoth and being deflected off its atmosphere (www.nasa.gov)

Yuggoth’s atmosphere is known to be primarily composed of nitrogen (N2) with minor concentrations of methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO); Yuggoth’s low gravity indicates that a large flux of these molecules should be able to escape into space. However, the cold upper atmosphere, composed primarily of methane (CH4), limits the escape of molecules into space. This substantially reduces the amount of material available for further ionization and mass-loading of the solar winds (Bagenal, et.al., 2016; this is the actual paper in Science). Additionally, as mentioned above, the ionosphere of Yuggoth can divert the solar winds away from the sun-ward size of the dwarf planet.

The net result of these conditions may be a somewhat stable stream of organic molecules, particularly methane, flow into and remaining in the upper atmosphere. Such conditions may provide favorable conditions for organisms that could feed on methane. Indeed, there are a unique group of prokaryotic organisms (bacteria) that can actually feed on methane and generate their own oxygen for survival. Such methane-eating microbes, called methanotrophs (Methylobacter oxyfera and M. mesophilicum), exist on Earth and can be found in methane-rich, oxygen-poor muds. Maybe the Mi-Go utilize a very similar mode of heterotrophy, collecting or filtering methane from the upper portion of Yuggoth’s atmosphere, as a source of energy. It should be noted we have mentioned this idea in a past article; however, the recent data collected by New Horizons helps to further support the hypothesis of a somewhat stable atmosphere environment above Yuggoth.

methanotroph.org_JCLara_UniversityofWashington                                                                                                    A transmission electron micrograph of some methanotrophic bacteria; taken by J.C. Lara at University of Washington (www.methanotroph.org).

An alternative hypothesis is that the Mi-Go have a symbiotic relationship with methanotrophic bacteria, possibly sequestering the organisms in special organs. The Mi-Go use the bacteria to harvest methane and utilize this source of carbon for energy; in turn, the bacteria get a favorable microhabitat that travels through interstellar space to other worlds. So if this is the case where could the Mi-Go have obtained some methanotrophic bacteria? Based on The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana (2nd edition by Daniel Harms; 1998) the Mi-Go first visited Earth approximately 160 million year ago. By then the Earth was oxygenated due to the photosynthesis of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) over millions upon millions of years. In fact, Earth became oxygenated sometime around 2.4 billion years ago (www.bbc.co.uk). Thus, unless the Mi-Go who first arrived on Earth intentionally hunted for methanotrophic bacteria in the anoxic (no oxygen) muds of Earth, it would be fairly difficult to collect these organisms, so maybe they did not harvest these bacteria from the Earth.

MiGo_JbLee                            Mi-Go by Jb Lee

Mars is known to have trace amounts of methane in its atmosphere so maybe the red planet had some shallow pools or mud flats that contained methanotrophic bacteria in its past, although based on what we know about Mars this is highly unlikely. In contrast, we know Titan, Saturn’s second largest moon, is the only moon in our solar system with a dense, cold atmosphere, primarily composed of nitrogen (which is necessary in the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy) with trace amounts of methane (www.nasa.gov). In addition, more recent surveys through the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini mission have revealed that Titan actually has lakes and seas of hydrocarbons. These methane and ethane-filled bodies may harbor a variety of prokaryotic life that directly feeds off of these hydrocarbons. If so, it would have been a simple task for the Mi-Go to swoop down and collect some of these organisms. Once they had samples, it would be very easy for them to internally culture these bacteria in special organs and transfer sub-samples to clonal off-spring as a means of surviving in the upper atmosphere of Yuggoth, feeding on the methane.

MI-GO_monsterbrains.blogspot.com                                                                               Mi-Go (www.monsterbrains.blogspot.com)

Of course to verify such hypotheses some detailed anatomical and physiological examinations on dead Mi-Go would be required and unfortunately, being composed of matter from beyond our known universe, such investigations would be very short since this matter experiences accelerated levels of quantum decomposition.

Next time we wrap up our conversation on Ubbo-Sathla and associated implications of time travel. Thank you – Fred.

Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 2 – The Moons of Yuggoth

nh-pluto_moons_family_portrait The moons of the Yuggothian system (www.nasa.gov)

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is the second of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers. This second article is a discussion on the Yuggothian system, which includes at least six bodies that orbit a common center of mass at a single plane in nearly circular orbits (Science, Volume 351, Issue 6279, 2016).

Prior to the mid-2000’s only the binary dwarf planets Yuggoth and Charon were known to exist by humanity. Charon has been hypothesized to be a number of worlds described by Lovecraft. However, that will be the focus of a future discussion. The smaller moons Nix and Hydra, were discovered in May 2005, less than a year before the launch of the New Horizons spacecraft (Science, 2016). Two even smaller moons, Kerberos and Styx, were discovered in 2011 and 2012, respectively. An image of the relative scale of the moons of Yuggothian system is provided below.

new-horizons-sees-reddish-spot-on-pluto-s-moon-nix-487626-2                Relative scale of the Yuggothian system’s moons

The unique array of high-spatial resolution and spectral imaging instruments aboard New Horizons provided the first details images of the four small moons. All four of the small Yuggothian moons are highly elongate with a high amount of surface reflectance, which means all of the moons are composed of substances that are highly effective at reflecting radiant energy (which is essentially electromagnetic and gravitational radiation combined). This high degree of reflectance indicates that all of the moon have varying degrees of water-ice on their surfaces (Science, 2016). However, the small moons do exhibit some differences.

Nix and Hydra are mostly neutral or gray in color; however, some composite images of Nix revealed a red color in one of its craters (Science, 2016). Some of the leading hypotheses on this suggests that the red color is a residual amount of material left from an impacting body or that this red material was excavated from the moon’s sub-surface as a result of some past impact. An alternative hypothesis is that this material is somehow associated with the Mi-Go. If this material is organic, it might be some type of lichen-like organism that the Mi-Go brought to our Universe from theirs as a source of food. In contrast, this crater may be a mining site where the Mi-Go are excavating Nix to collect this material for some unknown purpose. In any event, of all the moons in the Yuggothian system, Nix may be the most valuable relative to the needs of the Mi-Go.

nh-10-4blog-frame4_annotated Composite view of Nix; note the reddish color (www.nasa.gov)

Based on the number of craters on the Yuggothian moons, it is estimated that sometime between 4 and 4.5 billion years ago the small moons were formed as a result of two Yuggoth-sized bodies slamming into one another. Thus, more than likely the Yuggothian system of two dwarf planets and four moons was naturally formed in the early history of our Universe and is not the result of planetary engineering by the Mi-Go. However, this does not rule out any major modifications that Mi-Go may have conducted once they arrived on the edge of our Solar System. At a minimum, large scale mining of some of the unknown natural resources found in the Yuggothian system may be evident.

mi_go__fungi_from_yuggoth_by_nigromaggot-d6g8m7q                     Mi-Go with a brain case by Nigromaggot (www.deviantart.com)

Next time we begin our scientific discussion of Lovecraft’s “The Lurking Fear.” Thank you – Fred.



Discoveries on Yuggoth, Part 1 – The Atmosphere

In March 2016 the journal Science released a series of papers on the findings of the New Horizons Deep Space Probe as it passed by the Yuggothian (to many known as Pluto) system, located on the outer rim of our Solar System. This is one of a series of short articles that summarizes these papers.

fungus_from_yuggoth_by_doctorgurgul The Mi-Go, artwork by  Doctorgurgul, are known to live on Yuggoth (www.deviantart.com)

Some of the major objectives of the New Horizons probe included a characterization of structure and composition of Yuggoth’s atmosphere and to determine if its moon Charon has a detectable atmosphere. New Horizons has a wide array of sensors and instruments to collect data on Yuggoth.  The collection of near-surface temperature and pressure profiles through a radio wave instrument revealed that Yuggoth has an atmosphere that can produce weak horizontal winds.  Through the use of an ultraviolet spectrograph nitrogen and methane were detected in the Yuggothian atmosphere; additionally the photochemicals acetylene and ethylene were identified. There is also evidence for the presence of some unknown cooling agent in the atmosphere.  Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds have been documented in the thick, hazy atmosphere of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, and provide evidence for large liquid bodies (lakes?) on that moon. However, such photochemical reactions were not expected to be found in Yuggoth’s atmosphere.

image_3323_2e-Plutos-Blue-Skies_cdn4-sci-news.com The hazy blue atmosphere of Yuggoth may be due to tholin-like particles (www.cdn4-sci-news.com)

A thin but extensive, high altitude, cold atmosphere was detected by New Horizons around Yuggoth. The atmosphere has a bluish color, suggesting it is composed of very small, tholin-like particles. The word “tholins” was first coined and defined in 1979 by Carl Sagan and Bishun Khare in the paper, “Tholins: organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas,” published in the journal Nature.

20150721_tholin_flow_f537_Sarah_Horst_Johns_Hopkins_University                                      The production of tholins in the Sagan Khare experiments (Sarah Horst of Johns Hopkins University)

In 1970 Carl Sagan and others ran laboratory experiments at Cornell University where mixtures of organic and inorganic gases known to exist in the cosmos were irradiated with various energy sources (such as UV light or a spark discharge).  The results were a variety of complex organic compounds, forming a brown, sticky residue on the treatment flasks. Sagan and Khare called this material “tholins.” It is thought that tholins may be an important component of the atmosphere of Titan, comets and even Earth’s ancient oceans. Tholins may be the precursor for life. Indeed, it may be tholin-like compounds that the Elder Things used to either create life on Earth or increase its complexity by creating eukaryotic cells out of simple prokaryotic cells. In regard to Yuggoth some of dwarf planet’s red surface colors as well as those found at the pole of Charon its largest moon, may be due to the presence of tholins. Thus, these organic complexes may be responsible for both the reddish colors found on the surface of Yuggoth as well as for the bluish haze in its upper atmosphere.

NASA_2D34B0C700000578-3265178-image-a-18_1444321249557 The reddish color on some parts of Yuggoth may be due to deposits of organic complexes such as tholins (www.nasa.gov).

In conclusion the New Horizons probe discovered a surprisingly complex atmosphere surrounding Yuggoth. The unusually cold and hazy upper atmosphere suggests a lower escape rate for volatile compounds such as methane, indicating a recycling of these compounds thus creating a somewhat stable atmosphere. Perhaps the Mi-Go utilize these compounds through a form of chemotrophy, where these simple organic compounds, possibly being created through photochemical reactions, are used as a source of energy through oxidation. One could image the Mi-Go floating or cruising the upper atmosphere of Yuggoth, collecting tholin-like particles by some currently unrecognized ventral organ.

lovecraft___mi_go__earliest_design__by_kingovrats-d4zzgrc Early interpretation of a Mi-Go by KingOvRats (www.deviantart.com)

The next article in this series will focus on the satellites of Yuggoth. Thank you – Fred.

The Insects From Shaggai: Part 1, Alien Matter


Insect From Shaggai (from http://www.bookoffallens.blogspot.com)

In a previous article a hypothesis was suggested that the 9th planet that may exist beyond Neptune and Yuggoth (Pluto) may be Shaggai. This word “Shaggai” was mentioned only twice by Lovecraft and both occur in “The Haunter of the Dark.” The first mention of Shaggai was as a title of one of Robert Blake’s best-known short stories. The second mention was at the end of the story when one of the statements in Blake’s journal, found after his death states, “I remember Yuggoth, and more distant Shaggai, and the ultimate void of the black planets…” This statement was made by Blake after he gazed into the strange shining trapezohedron and  may provide the evidence that indeed Shaggai is the 9th planet beyond Neptune. Unfortunately, these are the only two references Lovecraft makes regarding Shaggai.

Fortunately, additional documentation has been made on Shaggai and its original inhabitants by Mr. Ramsey Campbell. Thus, almost all of the material reviewed in this article is derived from the tale “The Insects from Shaggai,” which is in a collection of stories called The Inhabitant of the Lake & Other Unwelcome Tenants. However, it should be noted that one of the entries in Lovecraft’s Commonplace Book has the suggestion that…”Insects or other entities from space attack and penetrate a man’s head and cause him to remember alien and exotic things – possible displacement of personality.” Is it possible that Mr. Campbell was influenced by the Insects themselves? More on that below.


Based on his curiosity on some local legends about Goatswood, which is located in Severn Valley, England, a fantasy writer named Ronald Shea visits these woods. Initially Shea encounters a strange, tree-like creature, metallic grey in color with a gaping orifice at the top of the main trunk. The creature scares Shea so much that he runs blindly deeper into the woods and comes across a ”thirty-foot-high metal cone which towered” in a clearing. The strange cone only reflected light because it was covered with moisture. It was constructed of “a dull mineral, pitted and scarred from unimaginable stresses.” The surface of the cone was illustrated with alien reliefs that depicted at least five distinct alien species, the dominant one appearing to be a creature that looked like some type of Terran insect. It is later revealed that the metallic grey tree-like creature is one of the other four species, used by the Insects as slave labor.

DSC_0040While this cone made of glass was constructed by humans, the metal cone used by the Insects From Shaggai is probably similar in shape with an opening at the top and circular trapdoors toward the bottom.

A circular trapdoor opened on the cone and a number of these alien insects – The Insects from Shaggai – emerged. These creatures were larger than terrestrial insects with leathery wings that were ridged and covered with triangular scales. They had huge lidless eyes, jointed tendrils which twisted “from the head in cosmic rhythms” and ten legs covered with shiny black tentacles that folded into the pallid underbody. Most peculiar were the three mouths on its head.

Based on Campbell’s text, one of the Insects swooped down and actually pressed its flat face against Shea’s for a brief moment and was then gone. The other insects left Shea alone after this encounter. The disappearance of the insect and the subsequent visions and historical information that seemed to appear in Shea’s mind indicates that there may have been either a merging of alien insect / human minds or the insect “downloaded” a large part of its history into Shea’s mind. In Shea’s testimony he states that the insects were not “strictly material – constructed of some alien matter which allow its atoms to exist conterminously with those of my body.” This description is similar to those made about the Mi-Go, being made of different matter than us. However, we do not know if the Mi-Go and the Insects from Shaggai are from the same universe and thus operating under the same natural laws.

mi-go1Both the Mi-Go and the Insects From Shaggai are made of different matter than us, but are the Mi-Go and Insects both made of the same alien matter? This Mi-Go is an illustration done by Steve Maschuck.

Even more similar than the Mi-Go, the Insects may be more closely related to the entities that are experienced in Lovecraft’s story “From Beyond.” In that tale, a device is turned on that allows us to see / perceive things that we normally can’t see. These creatures move and float around and through us. Additionally, within the field generated by the device we can see these creatures and they can see us. In previous articles it has been hypothesized that the device generates an inter-dimensional field that allow parallel universes to occupy the same space-time. Thus, if each universe is layered on one another like slices in a loaf of bread, recalling the M-brane theory on the structure of reality, the device in “From Beyond” (some refer to the device as a resonator) may create an inter-dimensional tunnel that allows more than one universe to perceive each other in the same space-time. Thus, the Insects of Shaggai may be residents of another universe but their metallic cone temples may also serve to generate the field similar to the resonator, allowing them to co-occupy our space time. Indeed, there are several times in the story where the cone structure is said to have the ability to create a multi-dimensional gate or portal.

resonator_doneDoes the metallic cone the Insects From Shaggai travel and live in generate an energy field similar to that of the resonator in “From Beyond?” This may explain how the Insect and human minds merged in the tale. Shown above is the resonator turned on, illustrated by Steve Maschuck.

If this is the case, why did the Insect who merged with Shea disappear? It is hypothesized that unlike the inter-dimensional plankton in “From Beyond” the Insects cannot simply drift through us. Similar to the Mi-Go the Insects of Shaggai are made of different matter than we are and Lovecraft suggests the difference is largely based on differences in the vibrational rate of electrons or other leptons (leptons are particles that are subject to the weak nuclear force which include electrons, muons and neutrinos). The vibrational rates of the sub-atomic particles for the inter-dimensional plankton may be so radically different from ours that we can pass through one another. However, if this vibrational rate (electron-based or dependent on other particles) between the Insects and us is only slightly off, then this may allow for a merging of consciousness but not for the two bodies to occupy the same space at the same time. The result was one of the bodies was disappeared. On a side note, it is interesting to note that Lovecraft may have presented some of the first concepts of String Theory with his description of the nature of the Mi-Go.

LargeHadronCollider_CERN_Large Hadron Collider (CERN). The merging of the minds from two universes may be analogous to the smashing sub-atomic particles into atoms or each other.

While the Insect disappeared, it does not appear to have been destroyed or transported to another universe. More than likely that particular Insect was still around in Goatswood; while not explicit the story does give one that impression. The merging may have been similar to smashing atoms with high energy particles in a large particle accelerator. As the alien form of matter in our space-time the Insect was immediately thrown away from the space-time that Shea occupied. This may have been so instantaneous that he did not observe it happening. The Insect from Shaggai may have acquired this form of mind merging either intentionally through directed, artificial selection or through natural evolutionary adaption on their home world / universe. However, the Insect used this ability to download a huge amount of its species history into Shea’s mind and that historical account is the topic of conservation in the next article. Thank you – Fred.


A sketch of an Insect From Shaggai


Lovecraft and Planet Nine, Part 2

In the previous article we discussed the evidence that has been recently presented by Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown of CalTech for the existence of a large, ninth planet beyond the orbit of Neptune. A large part of this evidence focuses on how objects in the Kuiper Belt all have orbits oriented in the same direction at about 30 degrees below the ecliptic plan. This hypothetical 9th Planet would be at least 10 times larger in mass relative to the Earth and its orbit around the Sun would be between 10,000 to 20,000 years. We also pointed to the fact that differences between the Newtonian predictions and the observations of the orbit of Uranus led to the discovery of Neptune. Thus, Neptune was first discovered through mathematics before the actual planet was observed. A similar situation may apply to this 9th Planet.

Planet-9-Art-NEWS-WEB                                               An artist’s interpretation of what the 9th planet in our solar system may look like (www.nasa.gov)

Prior to the discovery of Yuggoth (known to some as Pluto), there was much speculation over the existence of a 9th Planet, again to explain slight differences between predicted and observed orbits of Uranus and Neptune and Lovecraft mentioned this a number of times in his articles on astronomy. In a letter Lovecraft wrote to Scientific American in 1906 he noted that seven comets have their aphelia (the  point in the orbit of a body that is furthest from the Sun) at a point where a planet would be revolving around the Sun at a distance of about 100 astronomical units (a.u.). Remember the distance from Earth to the Sun is 1 a.u. and the Kuiper Belt is a zone on the outer rim of our solar system between 50 and 150 a.u. from the Sun. To put this in context relative to Pluto, that dwarf planet is 39.5 a.u. from the Sun. Lovecraft also noted that “a great many comets cluster around a point 50 a.u. out, where a large body might revolve.” So even before Pluto was discovered in 1930, the presence of a 9th Planet was suggested. Lovecraft concludes the letter by suggesting that the observatories of the world should band together and look for this hypothetical world (Collected Essays, Volume 3: Science. H.P. Lovecraft; edited by S.T. Joshi, 2005).

In an article written for the Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner later in 1906, titled “Are There Undiscovered Planets: Boundaries of Our System Still Shrouded in Obscurity,” Lovecraft noted that for most of human history only six planets were known until the discovery of Uranus in 1781 and Neptune in 1846. Lovecraft then went on to state that the two places in the solar system where additional planets could potentially be discovered was between Mercury and the Sun and beyond Neptune.

Image-of-Ladd-Observatory                Ladd Observatory of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island

Pluto was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh and Lovecraft certainly took note:

“Incidentally—you have no doubt read reports of the discovery of the new trans-Neptunian planet . . . . a thing which excites me more than any other happening of recent times.”

“The first real planet to be discovered since 1846 & only the third in the history of the human race! One wonders what it is like, & what dim-litten fungi may sprout coldly on its frozen surface! I think I shall suggest its being named Yuggoth! Reports make it smaller than Uranus & Neptune, but larger than the earth.”

These quotes are from a letter to Ms. Elizabeth Toldridge from 1 April 1930 (citation found at http://www.hplovecraft.com). Thus, only weeks after the discovery of Pluto was officially announced on 13 March 1930, Lovecraft was already suggesting that the then-named planet be called Yuggoth. However, Lovecraft was clearly wrong about Yuggoth being larger than Earth. In fact, as shown below Yuggoth is smaller than our moon, which is one of the reasons it has been classified as a dwarf-planet. Additionally, the small size of Yuggoth means that it could not explain the perturbations associated with the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. Some other celestial body must be contributing to the observed conditions. Hence, the presence of a large, 9th Planet could help to explain these observed perturbations, just as the presence Uranus helps to explain some of the perturbations associated with the orbit of Neptune.

xena_size_compare                        Comparing the size of Earth to Yuggoth, another dwarf-planet Xena and the moon


uranus%20and%20neptune                       A comparison of Earth, Uranus, Neptune and Yuggoth (Pluto)

So what exactly is the 9th Planet in the Lovecraftian Solar System? While this large, semi-galactic planet may actually be Yuggoth, based on most of Lovecraft’s writings Pluto is Yuggoth. For example, in “The Haunter in the Dark” Shaggai is mentioned as being more distant than Yuggoth and may be the 10th planet of our solar system. However, as noted by Joshi the first mention of Yuggoth by Lovecraft is in The Fungi of Yuggoth where it is described as “past the starry voids.” According to Joshi this may indicate that Yuggoth is entirely out of our solar system, even out of our known Universe (Lovecraft and a World in Transition: Collected Essays on H.P. Lovecraft, by S.T. Joshi from Hippocampus Press, 2014).  Such suggestions may indicate that Yuggoth is a celestial body that “phases” or travels through universes, and this may be how the Mi-Go travel inter-dimensionally. The Mi-Go are said not to made of the same type of matter that we are – maybe Yuggoth is similarly composed of extra-dimensional matter.


Mi-Go, the Fungi from Yuggoth by Corvenicenail (www.deviantart.com)

While the extra-dimensional hypothesis for Yuggoth is intriguing, based on Lovecraft’s work it is more than likely Pluto is Yuggoth – once thought of being the 9th planet of the solar system and recently re-categorized as a dwarf planet. So is the true 9th planet Shaggai? Possibly, however another candidate is Kynarth, which is only mentioned once in “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” where Randolph Carter sees Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim (Joshi, 2014).  Joshi hypothesizes that Kynarth may be the 10th planet but based on the wording “Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim” I suggest they sound being fairly close to each other so Kynarth may be Yuggoth’s (Pluto’s) “moon” Charon.


If the dwarf-planet Pluto is Yuggoth, is its moon known as Charon actually Kynarth?

So if the 9th Planet is Shaggai, what do we know about it? That will be the focus of the next article. Thank you – Fred.

More Notes on Yuggoth, Part 8


A view of Yuggoth from the New Horizons spacecraft. Is this what the Mi-Go “see” when they enter the thin atmosphere of this outpost (www.nasa.gov)?

Shown below is an enhanced false color image of the terrain of Yuggoth (to some known as Pluto). These 3_D topographic maps identify two mountains, named Wright Mons and Piccard Mons. The color blue represents lower elevations, green is intermediate and brown represents higher elevations (www.nasa.gov).


A 3-D false color image of the surface of Yuggoth (www.nasa.gov).

Based on the terrain of these two mountains it is possible that they are volcanoes or more appropriately named  cryovolcanoes. Instead of spewing molten rock as volcanoes do on Earth, cryovolcanoes may spit out a melted slurry of material such as water ice, nitrogen, ammonia or methane (www.nasa.gov). Do the Mi-Go use these cryovolcanoes as a source of energy or food?  More to come from New Horizons!


More Notes From Yuggoth, Part 7


High resolution photograph of the surface of Yuggoth (www.nasa.gov).

As NASA continues to analyze the incoming higher resolution photographs and data that are coming from Yuggoth (otherwise known as Pluto by most of humanity) more hypotheses are developed in an attempt to understand this dwarf world. It will take NASA a year to receive all of the incoming data (www.cnn.com); however, one thing is certain – Yuggoth is far more complex than originally thought.

The huge mountains of ice seen on Yuggoth may in fact be floating in massive flows of frozen nitrogen. During the “summer season,” when Yuggoth is closest to the sun, the frozen nitrogen may be turning to liquid and possibly gassing into the Yuggothian atmosphere. During this warmer season the huge chunks of nitrogen ice may be flowing or moving, similar to glaciers. However, during the “winter season” these mountain blocks may re-freeze and remain in place until the next Yuggothian summer season.

mi_gofull (1)

Sketch of a Mi-Go by Steve Maschuck.

In addition to frozen nitrogen, frozen methane has been detected on Yuggoth; in fact it is found all over the dwarf planet. However, most of this frozen methane is concentrated at the equator and a relatively thin is found at the pole. As shown below the ice near the equator is composed almost entirely of methane (shown in red), while the greenish pole is indicative of a mix of methane and nitrogen (www.space.io9.com). Ethane has also been detected on Yuggoth, which is probably produced by charged particles originating from the sun converting the frozen methane into ethane in a process called photolysis or radiolysis.


Showing the distribution of methane on Yuggoth (www.space.io9.com).

Yuggoth’s thin atmosphere is composed entirely of nitrogen and more than likely originates from geological processes. In addition, while methane can be produced through biological processes, this compound is found, even if in trace amounts, on every planet in the solar system as well as in interstellar gas and on comets.

Maybe the Mi-Go biologically “fix” the atmospheric nitrogen on Yuggoth as a source of energy, similar to the way some blue-green algae “fix” atmospheric nitrogen through the use of specialized cells called heterocysts. Additionally, the Mi-Go may also use methane and/or ethane as a source of energy. Such a biological process can be found on Earth. Methylomirabilis oxyfera is a bacterium that can survive in inhospitable environments, feeding on methane and essentially “breathing” its own oxygen it produces as a waste product. Such bacteria need methane and inorganic nitrogen compounds to survive and are typically found in the sediments of rivers and lakes where oxygen is absent or very low. Such bacteria were more than likely very common on early Earth, before photosynthesis started pumping oxygen into Earth’s atmosphere. Are the Mi-Go using similar biological pathways to exist on Yuggoth? Possibly – the next article will focus on Venus as we go back to discussing “In the Walls of Eryx.” Thank you – Fred.


A filament of the blue-green alga (also known as cyanobacteria) Anabaena. The clear cell is a heterocyst, where it fixes its own nitrogen from the atmosphere.


Methylomirabilis oxyfera is a bacterium that can feed off of methane in very harsh environments (from Dr. L Stanndard, UCT / Science Photo Library; http://www.nature.com)