Tag Archives: Yog-Sothoth

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter V, part 2: Other Worlds and Entities

In Chapter V of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter describes how he is a “supreme archetype” of many beings on many worlds. Based on the documentation, Carter is one of the original models used to produce these other beings.  These passages are very metaphysical and I have presented hypotheses that may explain these thoughts of Carter’s. For example, these thoughts of being part of a larger “string” of consciousnesses may be Carter’s mind connecting to others in the Multiverse. An alternative hypothesis may be that these thoughts may be the result of having direct contact with Yog-Sothoth. Again, this part of Chapter V is more metaphysical than scientific so I will focus on some of the other subjects mentioned toward the end of this chapter.

yog_sothoth_over_the_bay Yog-Sothoth over the Bay by Sigmanus (www.deivantart.com)

Some of the “other” Carters could be accessed “…by a variation in the angle of the consciousness-plane which cuts it.” This passage may indicate that in order to have access to other consciousness, one has to know how to utilize those higher dimensions proposed by String Theory. One of these consciousnesses was an entity who “…dwelt in primal Hyperborea and worshiped black, plastic Tsathoggua after flying down from Kythanil, the double planet that once revolved around Arcturus.”

tumblr_n1ar2vsnDG1rvh8o4o1_1280

Was Carter one of the non-human worshipers of Tsathoggua in ancient Hyperborea? Artwork by Mark E. Rogers

Tsathoggua is an entity that was discovered by Clark Ashton Smith and exists on Cykranosh; which to us is known as Saturn. There is some conflicting information on if Tsathoggua still dwells on Cykranosh or if it was brought to Earth by some unknown entities (Harms, 1998). There may be some type of inter-dimensional gate that connects Earth with Cykranosh, which would explain this historical confusion. Regardless, according to Carter, Tsathoggua may have originated from Kythanil and arrived on Cykranosh during the early formation of our Solar System.

saturn_aurora_hubble_28_jan_2004_med                                                                          Cykranosh, known to us as Saturn (www.nasa.gov)

As cited by Carter, Kythanil is a double planet system that once revolved around the red star Arcturus. While not officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union, a double planet system is a binary system where both bodies have planetary mass. For example, the Pluto (Yuggoth) – Charon (largest moon of Yuggoth) system can be thought of as a double planet. In fact, given the large size of our moon relative to the size of Earth, the European Space Agency has described the Earth – Moon system as a double planet. Very little is known of Kythanil expect that “doubtfully shaped” dwellers exist on this world. While Tsathoggua is frequently described as a large, sloth-like, bat creature, it is also frequently described as amorphous (e.g. black and plastic as quoted above). Thus, Kythanil may be the home world of Tsathoggua.

lovecraft___tsathoggua_idol_for_rpg_by_kingovrats-d6jht1t Tsathoggua Idol by King Ov Rats (www.deviantart.com)

Carter also mentions “…trans-galactic Shonhi, or a four-dimensioned gaseous consciousness in an older space-time continuum…” An older space-time continuum may actually refer to before the Big Bang. If there was some type of Space-Time before the Big Bang, which collapsed and exploded forming our Space-Time, how could any previously existing entity survive this? The four dimensions of the Shonhi may refer to four spatial dimensions. We exist in a three spatial dimensions / one temporal dimension Space-Time continuum. The trans-galactic Shonhi may have escaped destruction by entering a higher fourth spatial dimension.

The gaseous status of the Shonhi may be our limited three-dimensional senses trying to perceive a four-dimensional entity. This is similar to Edward Abbot’s Flatland where a two-dimensional being, like a square or circle, would have a difficult time perceiving the true form and shape a three-dimensional being like a sphere. Even if the sphere entered Flatland, passing through its Space-Time, it would appear first as a point, expand to a one-dimensional line, reach a maximum length, then decrease in length until it becomes a point and then disappears. This encounter between a sphere and a circle does not provide a true sense to the circle what the sphere actually looks like; the same may be for the Shonhi. To us three-dimensional entities a four-dimensional entity may look to us like a gas; however, the true form and shape of the Shonhi may be very different and we just don’t have the fourth dimensional senses to “see” what they really look like.

flatfl                                                                                                Attempting to perceive what a three dimensional sphere would look like in two dimensional universe

Another strange entity briefly described by Carter was the “…vegetable brain of the future on a dark radio-active comet of inconceivable orbit…” The fact that this entity is described as “vegetable” indicates it must be some form of autotroph, which is an organism that has the ability to produce complex organic compounds from simple substances. If the energy used to product these compounds is from light the mode of autotrophy is called photosynthesis, if energy is from inorganic chemical reactions it’s called chemosynthesis.

Given that the vegetable brain lives on the surface of a comet reveals that more than likely this entity is not a photosynthetic autotroph since they need light to exist. A comet in an inconceivable orbit spends the vast majority of its time in deep, dark space. As a comet comes closer to a star it does receive some of this light energy; indeed this is what produces the comet’s tail. However, the statement that the vegetable brain exists on a dark radio-active comet, provides evidence that it’s nutritional mode of action may be through chemosynthesis or possibly through a mode of autotrophy that uses radioactivity as a source of energy. For example, three specific species of fungi have been identified in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that exhibit higher rates of growth and assimilation of acetate when exposed to higher amounts of radiation. A similar mode of nutrition may be utilized by the vegetation brains; using the radiation emitted from the comet to break down simple organic compounds scattered on the surface of the comet. Indeed, the ESA’s Philae lander detected complex organic compounds, like amino acids, on the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

1024px-Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungus that thrives on radioactivity as a source of energy (www.wikipedia.com)

Finally, the term “dark” may also be an indication that this autotrophic entity feeds on dark matter or dark energy; however, there is no additional information to support this hypothesis.

At one point Carter mentions that observes a dim fantastic world that is in a quintuple star system “…in an unsuspected galaxy.” Carter describes a clawed and snouted race that battles burrowing inner horrors. Based on this scant piece of information it sounds like there is a predatory species that exists underneath the surface of this unnamed world.  Maybe the radiation from the five multi-colored suns is harmful to the burrowing inner horrors and they utilize the “unexplained tunnels” to reach the surface to attack and feed on the clawed and tapir-snouted inhabitants of the surface. This world illuminated by five suns, has bizarre metal towers and cryptical floating cylinders but the name of this world is not provided.

Next time we will move into Chapter VI where Carter dreams of the wizard Zkauba on the planet Yaddith. Thank you – Fred.

Advertisements

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter V, part 1: Higher Dimensions

yog_sothoth_by_chivohit-d5b8wrr Yog-Sothoth by Chivohit (www.deviantart.com)

At the end of Chapter IV of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter says to Yog-Sothoth that he is ready to peer beyond the Veil of reality. Suddenly, Carter’s mind is flooded with knowledge on the true nature of the cosmos. One concept that was discussed in some detail was how our perception of a “tri-dimensional world” or even a four-dimensional Space-Time does not represent the true nature and structure of the Universe / Multiverse. Additionally, Carter realizes that human senses can only perceive of a portion of reality; however, once he passed beyond the Ultimate Gate he saw “…in the brooding shadows of that which had been first a vortex of power and then an illimitable void, a sweep of creation that dizzed his senses.”

Yog-Sothoth continued to fill Carter’s mind with energy waves of information to obtain a better understanding of the Universe. Carter then understood that he was an infinitesimal part of a multiform entity; was this a realization and subsequent access to other beings in other Multiverses? Carter also understood that

“…every figure of space is but the result of the intersection by a plane of some corresponding figure of one more dimension – as a square is cut from a cube or a circle from a sphere. The cube and sphere, of three dimensions, are thus cut from corresponding forms of four dimensions that men know only through guesses and dreams; and these in turn are cut from forms of five dimensions, and so on up to the dizzy and reachless heights of archetypal infinity.”

yog_sothoth_by_nightserpent                                                               Yog-Sothoth by Nightserpent

The net result of this higher multi-dimensional view of reality is that our 3-space and 1-time Universe is merely a shadow or illusion of the true nature of substance and reality. Thus, the way the shadow of a cube is 2-dimensional representation of a cube in a 2-dimensional world, the Tesseract is a 3-dimensional shadow representation of a hypercube in 3-dimensional space (see below). According to Lovecraft and Price, if we had the appropriate knowledge and senses, where the Veil of reality has been pulled aside, we would perceive the true, multi-dimensional nature of reality.

cube-shadow                                                             The shadow of a cube is a 2-dimensional representation of the cube

hqdefault                                                     The Tesseract is a 3-dimensional shadow representation of a 4-dimensional hypercube.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries mathematicians were investigating geometry beyond the three known spatial dimensions, as well as working on “non-Euclidean” geometry, which is essentially a description of curved space and shapes. A lot of misinformation and pseudoscience was developed in light of these investigations, essentially from people who knew very little about the science. However, to many mathematicians surprise, such investigations into curved fourth dimensional Space-Time had a practical application in Einstein’s work on gravity and how the amount of matter determines the type of geometry that exists in the surrounding space (https://web2.ph.utexas.edu/~coker2/index.files/4d.shtml). As Kip S. Thorn put it in his essay Spacetime Warps and the Quantum World in The Future of Spacetime (2002), “…Einstein concluded that space and time are warped by matter and energy and that this warpage is responsible for the gravity that holds us to the surface of the Earth.”

yog_www.johncoulhart.com                                                                           Yog-Sothoth by John Coulhart (www.johncoulhart.com)

While higher dimensional mathematics continued through the 20th century, incorporating high dimensional concepts into physics and the nature of reality went largely unsuccessful. However, with quantum physics, the need to include more dimensions seemed apparent but it was in the 1980’s with the development of String Theory that the need for higher dimensional math appeared necessary. In order to include gravity into a single equation with the other forces of nature (electromagnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear) String Theory needed 9 or 10 spatial dimensions and one dimension of time (https://web2.ph.utexas.edu/~coker2/index.files/4d.shtml). In turn, String Theory has led to M-Theory, where the strings are looped and/or tethered to surfaces or membranes, possibly stitching together the Multiverse.

Again, before there was a mathematical need for higher dimensions in many of the leading theories of physics, discussions on this subject were largely thought of purely the stuff of fiction. Not only that, but many were criticized for considering such concepts or ideas. In his article “H.P. Lovecraft and Pseudomathematics” in Darrell Schweitzer’s Discovering H.P. Lovecraft (1995), Robert Weinberg dismisses Lovecraft’s thoughts of higher dimensions discussed in many of his stories. Weinberg states, “The existence of higher dimensions should be of little concern to this world as any contact with such dimensions is impossible.” Based on the current state of both String Theory and M-Theory higher dimensions are absolutely essential working through the development of a Standard, Unifying Theory.

41VgopMcVlL__SX312_BO1,204,203,200_

Weinberg also goes on in the article to state, “It is impossible (not unlikely or not yet possible, but impossible, actually shown to be never possible) to construct a higher dimension from a lower one.” That is a pretty definitive statement. While it may not be possible to construct a higher dimension, we can represent or model high dimensions (see above). Also, such higher dimensions may be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the Universe. Thus, I think casually discarding an idea or hypothesis and saying it’s just not possible or relevant can be dangerous in science. Who knows, maybe the next generation of physicists will come up with a new theory that completely does away with the need for String Theory and the consideration of higher dimensions. However, if working through String Theory and these ideas have led others into investigations that shine a little more light on the true nature of reality then that is a good thing. Science is very much built upon its history; Einstein’s General Relativity did not result in throwing out Newton’s Principles of Gravity, just like Quantum Mechanics did not result in throwing out General Relativity. It should also be emphasized that we always learn something even when our hypothesis is not proven correct.

yog-sothoth_www.lostsouls.org

Yog-Sothoth (www.lostsouls.org)

Getting back to “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” three dimensional entities like us who exist in linear time, cannot perceive the higher dimensions that are “wrapped and curled up,” tucked away from our perception. However, other entities, from other Universes with slight modifications in their natural laws, may be able to perceive or even have access to higher dimensions, which may allow them to travel through time and space in very unconventional ways (e.g. The Dreams in the Witch-House).

Based on what we know about dimensionality and Space-Time, life can only exist in a Universe of three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension. Based on Max Tegmark’s paper “On the Dimensionality of Spacetime” (Class. Quantum Gav. 14 (1997), L69-L75), other realities with more or less dimensions than ours would be “dead worlds.” Tegmark states in his abstract “In a space with more than three dimensions, there can be no traditional atoms and perhaps no stable structures.” This may be the case, however maybe many Lovecraftian entities can access the energy in these higher dimensions to conduct incredible feats thorough time and space. Thus, Yog-Sothoth maybe a unique and fluid form of life that both easily travels through and exists in all of these dimensions at the same time. If Tegmark’s idea does hold true, then any inhibited Universe, where atoms are stable enough to eventually rise to life, would be squeezed into that little box labeled “We Are Here” in the figure shown below.

2000px-Spacetime_dimensionality_svg.png

Next time we will wrap up our discussion of Chapter V in “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” with a discussion of some of the exoplanets described by Randolph Carter. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter IV, Yog-Sothoth and the Multiverse

In Chapter IV of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter passes through the Ultimate Gate. After passing through the Ultimate Gate, Carter initially still feels he is a “fixed point in the dimensional seething,” but then he begins to lose his sense of space and time in our reality. This statement indicates that passing through this gate may be somehow going outside of our known Space-Time Universe. For example, Carter realized that he is not just one person but many people over the span of linear time. All at once he was that boy at his Uncle and Aunt’s farm in October 1883, as well as the adult who is on the other side of the Ultimate Gate, talking to the Ancient One Umr At-Tawil. Humans are entities grounded in linear time and if this sense of “cause and effect,” which is the essence of time, is removed the past, present and future would certainly become difficult to distinguish from each another.

234edc2913c24e7eb8a9cc8b09858e98                                                                  Yog-Sothoth by Daigoro115

Layered on this loss of linear time is Carter’s loss of “self.” Beyond the Ultimate Gate Randolph Carter acknowledged the existence of multiple “Carters.” Carter felt his self beyond the limitations of one individual. He perceived himself as a variety of entities and creatures – “…humans and non-human, vertebrate and invertebrate, conscious and mindless, animal and vegetable.” He also perceived Carters beyond Earth, on other planets, in other galaxies and perhaps even other Universes (called cosmic continua in the story).

This loss of both linear time and individual self and described by Carter was one of the supreme horrors he experienced. Indeed, in a number of instances in Lovecraft’s tales, few individuals come back from beyond our Space-Time reality sane. As “quasi-Carter” struggles to stay grounded in his self and prevent the loss of his individuality, he sensed the presence of an entity beyond our Space Time.

lovecraft___yog_sothoth___lurker_at_the_threshold_by_kingovrats-d66k92p Yog-Sothoth, Lurker at the Threshold by King Ov Rats (www.deivantart.com)

“It was an All-in-One and One-in-All of limitless being and self – not merely a thing of one Space-Time continuum, but allied to the ultimate animating essence of existence’s whole unbounded sweep – the last, utter sweep which has no confines and which outreaches fancy and mathematics alike. It was perhaps that which certain secrete cults of earth have whispered of as YOG-SOTHOTH, and which has been a deity under other names;”

This entity was actually attempting to communicate with Carter in a concentration of energy that was almost described as painful. This combination of both mental pain and loss of self are a few symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has been described by some as a self-disorder or ipseity disturbance (ipse is Latin for “self” or “itself”) and is associated with complementary distortions of the act of awareness (Schizophrenia, Consciousness, and the Self by Louis A. Sass and Josef Parnas; Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(3):427-444, 2003). Is it possible that some forms of schizophrenia are the result of individuals having some type of contact with Yog-Sothoth?

Yog_sothoth_rising_by_butttornado-d6ubvy6 Yog-Sothoth rising by Richard Luong (www.luongart.hostoi.com)

Yog-Sothoth has been mentioned numerous times in Lovecraft’s tales and tends to be more associated with magic and metaphysics than science. Obviously, how Yog-Sothoth is presented or described depends on the philosophical perspective and knowledge base of the person involved. Thus, is it not surprising that Joseph Curwen in “The Case of Charles Dexter Ward” or Old Wizard Whateley in “The Dunwich Horror” describe Yog-Sothoth as some type of demon to be summoned. However Yog-Sothoth is being perceived, whether from a magical or scientific point of view, there are some common themes associated with this entity. Frequently, it is stated that the past, present and future are all one in Yog-Sothoth. Again, this is another reference to this entity not being confined to the limitations of linear time. Yog-Sothoth is also described as being the “key and the gate,” which refers to the fact that access to beyond our Space-Time reality is through Yog-Sothoth. This access can be opening the “door” to allow things from outside our Space-Time in or allow residents of our Universe, such as Randolph Carter, to go outside of our Space-Time.

While Yog-Sothoth is described as the key and the gate, it seems to be much more than that when Lovecraft’s tales are reviewed. In a number of instances Yog-Sothoth is said to be “where the spheres meet.” In “The Horror in the Museum,” co-written by Lovecraft and Hazel Heald, Yog-Sothoth is described as a “…a congeries of iridescent globes…” These descriptions may be veiled references to the Multiverse structure of reality.

yog_sothoth_by_verreaux-d38lggo                     Yog-Sothoth by Verreaux (www.deivantart.com)

The prevailing concept of the Multiverse is that quantum fluctuations during the inflation phase of the Universe sparks the creation of bubble Universe that then inflate on their own, making more bubble Universes into infinity. However, there is now a competing theory that the quantum fluctuations did not occur until the inflation phase was complete, creating an overlapping, finite Multiverse (see below). Whatever theory is more representative of the Multiverse concept, Yog-Sothoth seems to be “stitched” or “woven” into the very fabric of the Multiverse and in order travel through or go beyond the Multiverse one must make some sort of contact with Yog-Sothoth. Unfortunately, even briefly encountering this entity can result in insanity.

Multi_www.newscientist.com Multiverse Concepts (www.newscientist.com)

In Carter’s encounter with Yog-Sothoth it is revealed that the Ancient Ones, like Umr At-Tawil, are manifestations or extensions of this Old One into our Space-Time. Yog-Sothoth also communicates to Carter that it will grant his request and show him the “Ultimate Mystery.” Yog-Sothoth claims that it has granted this request only eleven times to beings from Earth, with five of these being men or resembling men. What were the other six? Elder Things or Deep Ones? The Great Race in the Cone Shaped Beings? Mi-Go or the Insects from Shaggai? Or some other, yet undiscovered species from Earth’s distant past or future?

Chapter IV concludes with Yog-Sothoth giving Carter one last choice – to return back to his own Space-Time or to peer beyond the Veil of reality. Next time we will journey with Carter beyond this Veil. Thank you – Fred.

 

“When the Earth is Cleared,” Wrapping up the Discussion of The Dunwich Horror

DH_SammaeL89

The Dunwich Horror by SammaeL89

Before we wrap up the discussion on “The Dunwich Horror,” I did want to note that there was another description of Wilbur’s brother prior to the conclusion of the tale.  Immediately after the professors from Miskatonic University hit Wilbur’s brother with the strange powder, Curtis Whateley did get a glimpse and describes the entity shaped like a large egg, the size of a barn, with dozens of legs.  He also said it appeared to be made of jelly with serpent like, wriggling ropes on top, covered with eyes.  Curtis also mentioned the large face on top, which later he would describe as looking like old Wizard Whateley.  The sight of Wilbur’s brother caused Curtis to faint.

When Dr. Armitage read Wilbur Whateley’s diary he was struck by a particular passage that he found startling and disquieting.  I will spend the majority of this article focusing on this passage since it provides valuable information on what Wilbur and his grandfather were trying to achieve.

The first thing I want to note is that Wilbur clearly understood how different he and his brother were and that this difference was critical in accomplishing their goal.  Wilbur states that his brother “…is not like to have much earth brain.”  Thus, Wilbur’s brother looked more like one of their fathers, Yog-Sothoth.  However, some of their other father’s genes, old Wizard Whateley, are manifested in Wilbur’s brother as his large head, yards across.  Yet the point made here is that Wilbur recognizes that his brother is more alien than he and is the keyhole to opening the way for Yog-Sothoth.

Yog_GrafGunther

Yog-Sothoth and the Dunwich Horror by Graf Gunther

Wilbur refers to the two magnetic poles and seeing them through the use of the Dho formula.  He then mentions that he would like to visit the poles once “the earth is cleared off.”  The two magnetic poles obviously refer to the North and South Poles, which are the geographic areas on the Earth.  The North and South Poles are where the Earth’s imaginary axis passes through; the Earth spins on this imaginary axis at a tilt of 23.5 degrees relative to the plan of the ecliptic.  The North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole are somewhat near, but not exactly on top of, the geographic Poles.  The molten metal in the Earth’s outer core is what generates our planet’s magnetic field (www.windows2universe.org).  The Earth’s magnetic field extends thousands of miles beyond the Earth’s atmosphere and protects it from the charged particles of the solar wind as well as cosmic radiation.  Without the protection of the Earth’s magnetic field it would be very difficult for life (at least life as we know it) to exist.  Was this the plan of the Whateleys and Yog-Sothoth?  To somehow eliminate the Earth’s magnetic field and allow cosmic rays and UV-radiation to slowly kill all or most life on Earth?  Wilbur does mention that it will take years to clear the Earth.

608139main1_geomagnetic-field-670

Earth’s geomagnetic field (www.nasa.gov)

It is interesting to note that Wilbur was told it would take years to clear off the Earth by “they from the air.”  Additionally, they from the outside “…cannot take body without human blood.”  What are these entities of the air, from outside?  Are these the Old Ones, waiting for the gate to be opened by Yog-Sothoth in order to enter our reality?  As I have cited a number of times, the Old Ones may have the ability to enter our reality but in order to do so they need assistance from entities within our space-time.  Maybe we serve as beacons or guide points in the inter-dimensional flotsam and jetsam.  Additionally it also appears that Yog-Sothoth must open the way for the Old Ones to enter.

Another interesting point is that they of the outside need human blood.  This again may provide support for my hypothesis on the weakness of the Old Ones.  While they are immensely powerfully beings they come from outside and thus come from a universe, dimension or reality very different from ours.  They may have a difficult time adapting to the natural laws of our space-time.  The utilization of human blood, indeed the hybridized creation of Wilbur and his brother, may be strategies used by the Old Ones to establish more stable forms of matter in our space-time.  Thus, the need for human blood may not necessarily be for sustenance but for utilization and incorporation of human DNA into their molecular make-up.  It is not known if the biology of the Old Ones is based on a DNA / RNA replication system or if their genetic structure is too alien for us to understand.

Wilbur_Santiago_Caruso

Wilbur Whateley in the library of Miskatonic University by Santiago Caruso

Wilbur also mentions in the passage that he must “…learn all the angles of the planes and all the formulas between the Yr and the Nhhngr.”  This may be in reference to obtaining the ability to travel through hyperspace similar to Keziah Mason and Walter Gilman in “The Dreams in the Witch-House.”  I can find no other reference to the formulas between the Yr and the Nhhngr, except for one by Lin Carter from his translation of the Second Narrative from the Necronomicon in a passage named “The Thing Under Memphis (1984).  According to the Carter translation the formulas are used to travel back and forth between Kadath and Earth but there is no indication of this in Wilbur’s diary.  More than likely it is a set of formulas, similar to those studied by Walter Gilman in the non-Euclidean calculus and quantum mechanics and serves as a means of traveling through space-time and beyond through hyperspace.

Wilbur also mentions making the Voorish sign and blowing the powder of Ibn Ghazi onto his brother to make him more visible.  The Voorish sign may be a gesture or hand motion frequently used by ancient civilizations to reflect power, while the powder of Iben Ghazi was probably the same material Dr. Armitage used to reveal the appearance of Wilbur’s brother at the end of the tale.  Iben Ghazi may have been an Arabic sorcerer (S.T. Joshi, 2001).  Obviously, the chemical make-up of the powder has a very specific reaction with entities from outside, making them visible within the slice of the EM spectrum we use for vision.

dunwich_horror_by_onychuk-d4eib1k

The Dunwich Horror by Onychuk

Finally, the passage concludes with Wilbur wondering what he will look like when the Earth beings are cleared from the planet.  Remember, similar to Wilbur’s brother, Wilbur is a hybrid of life from our space-time and from “outside.”  Thus, the extra-dimensional part of Wilbur may be only a shadow of what he really looks like, similar to how a tesseract is a representation or analog of a 4th dimensional cube.  Many of the Old Ones, such as Cthulhu, are extensions of themselves in our own space-time and what we see is only a crude presentation of what they really look like in their own reality, something we cannot even begin to perceive with our limited five senses.  Thus, based on this statement of Wilbur’s if the Old Ones are successful and Yog-Sothoth opens the gate, the very fabric of our space-time may be altered to make it more conducive for their existence.  In turn, Wilbur’s true appearance would be revealed.

tesseract

A representation of a 4th dimensional shape in three dimensions called a tesseract

More evidence of this ultimate goal of the Old Ones is found in one of Dr. Armitage’s concluding statements at the end of the tale where he says, “…the beings they [the Whateleys] were going to let in tangibly to wipe out the human race and drag the earth off to some nameless place for some nameless purpose.”  While the ultimate purpose of why the Old Ones want Earth is not known, more than likely dragging the Earth of to some nameless place is more of a reference of opening some type of portal or wormhole and allow either the Earth to enter their reality or have their reality spill into ours.  This would allow to Old Ones to become more stable on a quantum and sub-atomic level.  Thus, it is not necessarily physically moving of Earth to another place in space, but rather creating an opening to allow the two dimensions or realities to merge.  The key to this is Yog-Sothoth, described as “the key to the gate, whereby the spheres meet.”  Yog-Sothoth is the key and the spheres represent the two realities.  However, a key needs a keyhole and that was Wilbur and his brother.  Fortunately for us Dr. Armitage destroyed the keyhole.  However, another keyhole could certainly pop up somewhere else in our space-time and maybe next time an Armitage won’t be around to destroy it!

Next time we will re-focus on the Lovecraftian Solar System.  Last year we discussed the planets and this year we will discuss other components of the solar system such as planetoids, asteroids, comets, our moon and the sun.  Thank you – Fred.

0027e147_medium

Dr. Henry Armitage and a posse from Miskatonic University in the Roger Corman film “The Dunwich Horror”

The Dunwich Horror: Meet the Twins, Part 3 Conception of the Twins

Wilbur_agapitilio.tumblr

With very little data even an educated guess, let alone a hypothesis, is very difficult to make on the hyper-dimensional cross breeding that occurred between the Whateleys and Yog-Sothoth.  However, based on the few pieces of information H.P. Lovecraft and Dr. Henry Armitage have provided, as well some knowledge on Terran biology, I will present a few potential hypotheses on the creation of the Whateley twins.

First, it should be noted that little is known about Lavinia’s mother.  She died under mysterious circumstances when Lavinia was 12 years old.  While Lavinia may or may not have been the product of inbreeding, she may have been a failed attempt to open the inter-dimensional gate for Yog-Sothoth.  In addition, the mysterious disappearance of Lavinia’s mother may have been a previous attempt by Old Wizard Whateley to open the gate, only this time the failure may have ended with the death of Lavinia’s mother.  With Lavinia’s mother gone, Old Wizard Whateley may have turned his interests toward Lavinia, attempting to use his daughter instead of his wife to open the gate for Yog-Sothoth with more success.

The_Dunwich_Horror_by_CthulhuCultists

The Dunwich Horror by Cthulhu Cultists

While I do believe the abhorrent act of incest occurred between Lavinia and her father, precisely with the goal of opening the way for Yog-Sothoth, the exact mechanism beyond the incest is largely unknown.  However two possible hypotheses, similar but slightly different, to explain he conception of the twins are presented in this article.

Again, little is known about the biological nature of Yog-Sothoth but it is extremely unlikely that it reproduces using DNA and RNA like the vast majority of life on Earth.  However, while we some idea how it reproduces, based on the incident described in “The Dunwich Horror,” is may be hypothesized that Yog-Sothoth may function as a virus.  Viruses are a unique form of life on Earth; so unique that some do not even consider them life (Microbes and Evolution: The Word that Darwin Never Saw by R. Kolter and S. Maloy [editors], 2012).  Virus are essentially a small amount of genetic material (DNA or RNA) encased in a protein coat (frequently called a capsid) with a surrounding layer of lipids.

What is particularly unique to viruses is that unlike all other forms of life on Earth, they can only replicate by taking advantage of the existing intra-cellular infrastructure founded within the cells of other organisms (plants, animals, fungi or bacteria).  Thus, viruses are frequently thought of as genetic parasites, infecting a host cell to take advantage of its cellular machinery in order to replicate itself (Symbiosis: An Introduction to Biological Associations by Surindar Paracer and Vernon Ahmadjian, 2000).  While some viruses are known to kill the host cell or trigger an immune response (such conditions associated with viral diseases), others are known to have symbiotic relationships with their host cells.  In addition, viruses are a lot more common throughout the biosphere than originally thought (Kolter and Maloy, 2012).

flu3c

A transmission electron micrograph of the influenva virus (www2.estrellamountain.edu)

While it is not being suggested here that Yog-Sothoth is a virus, the point is that it may have somewhat operated as a virus.  Once the Whateley twins were conceived, Yog-Sothoth may have infected the zygotes prior to cellular division and growth.  That would have been the easiest time to do so.  Immediately utilize the existing genetic machinery of the zygotes, before cellular division and differentiation occurs, to re-write their genetic codes so they develop into organisms are that are beyond human.  Thus, this hypothesis states that during or immediately after the moment of conception, Yog-Sothoth entered the zygotes and immediately began using the genetic and cellular infrastructure to re-write the genetic code of each zygote.  In addition, there was obviously some degree of variation in the re-writing of the genetic code for each zygote; Wilbur having a smaller degree of modifications relative to his twin.

Utilizing the existing genetic or cellular material of a host organism has been documented in other instances.  For example, the xenomorphs in ALIEN function primarily as parasitoids, which can be described as a cross between a predator and a parasite.  Eggs are laid either on or in the host, the larva hatches and feeds on the host while it’s still alive, eventually killing the host (A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics by R.J. Lincoln, G.A. Boxshall and P.F. Clark, 1988).  However, what is unique about the xenomorphs is that while they function as parasitoids, they also incorporate some of the host’s DNA into their genome thus exhibiting some of the phenotypic traits of their hosts.  Thus, a xenomorph incubated in a human walks upright, while a xenomorph incubated in say a dog runs on all fours.  In a sense, the xenomorph operates as a viral genetic parasite / parasitoid.  Again, I am not stating that Yog-Sothoth functions either as a virus or as a xenomorph; however, I am hypothesizing that a somewhat similar mechanism may have been used to infuse the extra-dimensional essence of Yog-Sothoth with the Whateley genome.

alienface

Adult stage of the xenomorph from the movie ALIEN

An alternative to the viral / parasite hypothesis is one focusing more on symbiosis.  Endosymbiosis is the theory that complex eukaryotic cells (plants, animals, fungi) were the outcome of symbiotic relationships among various prokaryotic cells (bacteria).  There is quite a bit of data to support this idea.  For example, mitochondria are organelles that supply most of the chemical energy for eukaryotic cells and actually have their own genes – but only about 15 of them.  However, these few genes and their sequence of DNA are clearly similar to a group of existing bacteria that include soil and marine bacteria as well as some that are pathogenic (R. Kolter and S. Maloy [editors], 2012).  Additional evidence supports the hypothesis that the creation of eukaryotic cells was the result of bioengineering experiments conducted by the Elder Things sometime between 2.0 and 1.0 billion years ago.

Back to the mitochondria, it turns out these intra-cellular organelles are passed to offspring exclusively by the female.  In fact, almost any symbiotic bacteria, such as those found in our intestines that help us to breakdown and digest food, are passed from mother to offspring.  These beneficial bacteria infect the children before they are born (R. Kolter and S. Maloy [editors], 2012).  Yog-Sothoth may have functioned in this manner; not as a virus or a parasite but as a symbiotic entity infusing with the two Whateley zygotes.  In addition, this may provide evidence why sexual reproduction between a human male and female was required.

dunwich_horror__001_by_skullbeast-d3bqug7

The Dunwich Horror by Skullbeast (www.deviantart.com)

Of course since nothing is known about the biology and genetics of Yog-Sothoth, if such concepts even applicable, we do not know the exact mechanism on how it infused with the Whateley zygotes.  However, these two proposed hypotheses may help to understand these mechanisms.  What we do know is that the creation of the Whateley twins, fathered by both Old Wizard Whateley and Yog-Sothoth was necessary to open the way for the Old Ones.  Next time we will focus on a description and analysis of Wilbur’s twin.  Thank you – Fred.

The Dunwich Horror: Meet the Whateleys

Lovecraftian Gothic

Lovecraftian Gothic – The Whateleys by Will Beck (www.thelovecraftsman.com)

Noah Whateley, also known as Old Wizard Whateley lived in the rural backwoods of Dunwich with his albino daughter Lavinia who had a child, Wilbur, and a twin.  According to Lovecraft’s “The Dunwich Horror” Lavinia gave birth to the twins as a result of a very strange and unique sexual union with Yog-Sothoth (more on that in a future article).    The subject for this article is a discussion of the Whateley family, focusing primarily on the Noah and Lavinia Whateley.

The families of Dunwich have been accused of forming…”a race by themselves, with the well-defined mental and physical stigmata of degeneracy and inbreeding.”  They have also been accused of…”half-hidden murders, incests and deeds of almost unnamable violence and perversity.”  However, these accusations may be just prejudism against members of rural communities.  With that said, the families of Dunwich did know to stay away from Old Wizard Whateley, who could be accused of dabbling in degenerate and perverted activities.

dunwich_family_portraits_1__noah_whateley_by_sorrowking-d5xzbgo

Dunwich Portraits:  Noah “Old Wizard” Whateley by Sorrowking (www.deviantart.com)

Very little was known about Noah Whateley except that as a resident of Dunwich he was generally shunned for his reputation of dealing with black magic.  Another reason was the unexplained death of his wife when their daughter, Lavinia, was twelve years old.  Lavinia was described as being a “somewhat deformed, unattractive albino.”  Albinism is a recognized recessive human trait, such as color blindness, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia and Sickle-cell anemia.  In the case of albinism, a mutation involving a metabolic block associated with tyrosine, results in preventing the production of melanin pigments.  This mutation, which can be past to offspring but is a recessive genetic trait, results in the lack of pigment production and thus albinism (Concepts of Genetics by W. S. Klug & M.R. Cummings, 1983).

lavinia_whateley_portrait_by_hokova-d5hzfj4

Lavinia Whateley by Hokova (www.deviantart.org)

Although albinism has been associated with inbreeding, it does not necessarily indicate inbreeding.  It is true that inbreeding of any species increases the probability of recessive genes to be manifested phenotypically – that is, they show up as an observable or detectable trait.  However, the appearance of such recessive traits does not only appear in cases of inbreeding.  Two individuals within a population not closely related but heterozygous for a recessive trait (like color blindness) can still result in offspring with the manifested recessive trait.  For example, two individuals having the heterozygous genes for color blindness have a 25% chance of having offspring that are color blind.  The ability to predict the genetic outcome of offspring for a specific genetic trait was discovered by Reginald Crundall Punnett and William Bateson.  In the early 20th century Punnett developed the “Punnett Square” to depict the number and variety of genetic combinations, and had a role in shaping the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetics. Punnett and Bateson co-discovered this “coupling” or gene linkage, moving from genetic probabilities to phenotypic manifestations of observable traits (www.dnaftb.org). William Bateson brought Mendel’s laws of genetics to the attention of biologists in general by translating Mendel’s work into English.

GENETIC_INTERACTIONS_SOLVED_PROBLEMS_06

A dihybrid Punnett Square for a recessive genetic trait such as albinism (from http://www.00edu-cdn.com)

My understanding is that albinism is associated with a dihybrid cross, which involved two distinct traits (or phenotypes).  Specifically the two traits involved with albinisms is production of the pigment melanin and blood type.  Again, while the probability of the manifestation of many recessive traits can increase with inbreeding, the appearance of such traits does not necessarily indicate inbreeding.  Indeed, relative to Old Wizard Whateley and his daughter Lavinia there is no direct evidence that her albinism is the result of inbreeding.  Unfortunately, that is not necessarily the case with the birth of Lavinia’s twins and that is the focus of the next article.  Thank you – Fred.

dunwich_portraits_2__lavinia_whateley_by_sorrowking-d5xzhca

Dunwich Portraits:  Lavinia Whateley by Sorrowking (www.deviantart.com)

The Dunwich Horror and the Relationships Among Shub-Niggurath, Cthulhu and Yog-Sothoth

yog_yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com

Yog-Sothoth by Micheal Bukowski (yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com)

As identified the “Genealogy of the Elder Races,” Yog-Sothoth may be thought of as the “grandfather” of Cthulhu.  A “sexual” union or merging between Yog-Sothoth and Shub-Niggurath, produced  Nug and Yeb, who in turn gave rise asexually to Cthulhu and Tsathoggua, respectively.  I feel very awkward using such human or even Terran terms such as grandfather and sexual when describing the relationships among these entities since their biology, and possibly their physical and chemical nature, is very different from ours.  Sexual implies, at least relative to life on Earth, a re-shuffling or recombination of genetic material from mother and father to produce offspring with a slightly different genome; not an exact copy of the mother or an exact copy of the father.  In turn, this increased genetic variation may be better adapted; this is one of the genetic engines that drive natural selection.  However, in the case of Old Ones, such Earth-definitions more than likely do not apply.

3559419-3097994455-bmwHo

Instead of grandfather, the relationship between Yog-Sothoth and Cthulhu maybe better described as Cthulhu being the offspring of Yog-Sothoth on generation away.  The reason for this more nebulous description is the fact that Cthulhu was produced from Nug through a form of undocumented asexual reproduction.  Was this simply a case of Nug getting large enough and splitting into two distinct entities like an amoeba?  Or did Cthulhu “bud” off of Nug in a manner similar to that observed in bryozoans or coral?  Or was Cthulhu a fragment or piece of Nug that broke off to develop on its own, floating in the inter-dimensional foam?  Such growth through fragmentation commonly occurs in many invasive freshwater plants such as Eurasian watermilfoil or hydrilla.   However, none of these terms well represent the relationship between Nug and Cthulhu since all of these forms of asexual reproduction result in clones; the offspring are exact copies of the parent whether we are talking about amoebas, bryozoans or aquatic plants.  Based on what little information we have Cthulhu does not appear to be a clone of Nug.  Thus, our limited experience with Earth-based biology cannot be used to accurately describe this strange relationship.

640px-Haeckel_Bryozoa

Illustrations of bryozoans by Ernst Haeckel (www.wikipedia.org)

So do we know any more about the relationship between Yog-Sothoth and Cthulhu?  Yog-Sothoth is not mentioned in “The Call of Cthulhu” but Cthulhu is mentioned in “The Dunwich Horror.”  In “The Dunwich Horror” as Wilbur Whateley is reading the Necronomicon in the library of Miskatonic University, Dr. Henry Armitage looks over Wilbur’s shoulder to see what passage he is reading.  It is this passage where we hear about the Old Ones and that “Yog-Sothoth knows the gate.  Yog-Sothoth is the gate.  Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate.  Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth.”  As mentioned in the previous article this passage indicates that Yog-Sothoth is somehow the source or connection between the Old Ones and our reality.  In addition, it also refers to the fact that the concept of time is very different to Yog-Sothoth.

Getting back to Cthulhu, the passage does briefly mentions other Old Ones including Great Cthulhu who is referred to as a cousin that can only dimly spy them (the other Old Ones) and Shub-Niggurath is also briefly mentioned.  While this passage may seem contradictory relative to the “Genealogy of the Elder Races,” it emphasizes the point that the typical genetic, family-based relationships we are so familiar with in describing many eukaryotic organisms on Earth do not apply to the Old Ones.  These descriptions are only feeble attempts for us to understanding the true nature of the Old Ones.

cthulhu

Cthulhu by Damnengine (www.deviantart.com)

As mentioned earlier, Earth-based biology is obviously very limited in describing the sexual union between Yog-Sothoth and Shub-Niggurath.  In a previous article I hypothesized that the sexual union between these entities may not be a re-shuffling of genetic material.  Instead, it may represent the birth or creation of matter that is more stable in our existing space-time.  As previously hypothesized, the “Darkness” that directly created Shub-Niggurath maybe a manifestation of Dark Matter, which accounts for approximately 23-27% of the stuff in our Universe.  In turn, “The Nameless Mist” that created Yog-Sothoth may be a manifestation of Dark Energy, which accounts for another 68-73% of the stuff in our Universe.  This means that the matter we are familiar with, all life, all of the Earth, the planets, the sun and stars, the gases of the nebulae, everything are know and understand as matter only accounts for between 4-5% of the stuff in our Universe.

Dark matter and dark energy are not called “dark” because they are distant or invisible; they do not represent black holes or the deep vacuum of space.  They are described as dark simply because they are completely unknown to us (The 4% Universe by Richard Panek, 2011) and how we perceive reality.  Scientists have over the years begrudgingly recognized dark matter and dark energy primarily due to the fact that most information to date point to an expanding universe, which indicates something must have some type of anti-gravity property to overcome the natural gravitation attraction matter, in turn allowing for the expansion of the universe (www.nasa.gov).  Since the matter we are familiar with accounts for such as small portion of the stuff in the universe, some have called our known matter to be just a bit of pollution in our space-time and seem to be completely irrelevant to the cosmos (Richard Panek, 2011).  Yog-Sothoth as the gate and opener of the way may have channeled the alien energy from the Big Bang into the alien matter manifested as Shub-Niggurath.

3242526-yog_sothoth_by_hvergi_comicvine.com

Yog-Sothoth by Hvergi (www.comicvine.com)

Thus, the sexual union between Yog-Sothoth and Shub-Niggurath may represent the creation of that 4-5% of known matter from the dark matter and dark energy of the proto-universe.  So Azathoth may have been the Big Bang (more on that later) giving rise to the proto-universe, which in turn cooled and expanded.  This then would have created The Nameless Mist (dark energy) which gave rise to Yog-Sothoth and the Darkness (dark matter) which gave rise to Shub-Niggurath.  In turn, the “sexual” union produced matter as we know it (Nug and Yeb).  Obviously, all of this is highly speculative, with hypotheses that will probably never be tested.  However, if we eventually develop the technology and understanding to actually detect or measure dark energy and dark matter, it may be possible to determine if sentience or a cognizant presence is associated with 95-96% of the universe.

All of the Old Ones appear to be limited in how they can exist in our space-time in a stable, physical form.  This explains their nebulous appearances; as previously described we are not observing their true nature, only a fraction of their forms squeezed into our three spatial and one temporal reality.  However, this does not prevent them from attempting to open the way into our reality.  For Cthulhu the attempted method is to enter the dreams of beings in our space-time to awaken him.  For Shub-Niggurath it is the creation of the Dark Young.  For Yog-Sothoth it is the attempted hybridization with Lavinia Whatley and next time we will discuss the Whateley family.  Thank you – Fred.

yog_sothoth_by_drhoz_davidjrodger.files.wordpress.com

Yog-Sothoth, the Lurker at the Threshold by Dr. Hoz (www.davidjrodger.files.wordpress.com)