Tag Archives: Through the Gates of the Silver Key

How the Universe Expanded in H.P. Lovecraft’s Lifetime: Part 3, Beyond the Mountains of Madness

Hubble shears a "woolly" galaxy A previously unidentified “woolly galaxy” found by the Hubble Telescope (www.nasa.gov).

As we previously discussed, H.P. Lovecraft’s “The Whisperer in Darkness” may have been the “keystone” tale in which the Universe expanded from one island galaxy into one including hundreds of millions, if not billions, of galaxies. This expanded view of the Universe largely stems from Edwin Hubble’s confirmation that many observed gaseous nebulae are actually entire galaxies, as well as his discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. While “The Whisperer in Darkness” (written in early 1930) have been the tale where Lovecraft first introduced this expanding view of the Universe, largely through the perspective of the Mi-Go, the idea of multiple galaxies was firmly established by the time he wrote At the Mountains of Madness in early 1931.

As Dyer and Danforth were examining the bas-reliefs of the Elder Things they found a section that represented “…the preterrestrial life of the star-headed beings on other planets, in other galaxies, and in other universes…”. Thus, not only is a universe filled with galaxies but the concept of a multiverse was also identified by Lovecraft. It is interesting to note that At the Mountains of Madness was not the first reference Lovecraft made to more than one universe in his stories. This is not particularly surprising since as we previously stated before Hubble’s discoveries, the Milky Way Galaxy was considered the Universe; thus, one could easily extrapolate and consider the presence of more than only galaxy-universe. However, the concept of the multiverse and how Lovecraft understood it will be discussed in future articles.

lovecraft elder2 Elder Thing by Steve Maschuck

In “The Dreams in the Witch-House” Walter Gilman talks about how with the use of higher mathematics one can travel through Space-Time by finding a passage out of our 3-dimensional space-sphere and then re-entering at another point within our space-sphere. While the travel itself would not kill the traveler, one would have to make sure that the point of re-entry is favorable conditions for life (e.g. enough oxygen to breath, minimal amount of radiation, temperature concerns, etc.). Following this Gilman hypothesized that “Denizens of some planets might be able to live on certain others – even planets belonging to other galaxies or to similar dimensional phases of other space-time continua…”. Again, Lovecraft clearly embraces the idea of many galaxies in our universe.

the-dreams-in-the-witch-house-jhc-by-h_-p_-lovecraft-2-2120-p

In “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” co-written with E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter is attempting to understand how there can be other forms of his “self” – human and non-human, vertebrate and invertebrate, conscious and mindless, animal and vegetable. He goes on to say, “And more, there were “Caters” having nothing in common with earthly life, but moving outrageously amidst backgrounds of other planets, systems and galaxies and cosmic continua.” Later, when Carter’s mind enters a Yaddithian wizard’s body, he has access to light-beam envelope technology that can transport him through space-time to other worlds spread throughout the 28 galaxies accessible to the light-beam. It is not yet understood if this limitation to 28 galaxies is simply a spatial limitation or if the Yaddithian technology to allow the light-beams to be transmitted is only found in these 28 galaxies.

lovecraft___zkauba__yaddithian_ii_by_kingovrats-d9sn1hl                    The Yaddithian wizard Zkauba by KingOvRats (www.deviantart.com)

In The Shadow Out of Time, Nathaniel Wingate Peaslee attempted to understand the information provided to him on how the Earth was once inhibited by entities far more advanced than humans, millions of years ago. Some came from the stars while others evolved on Earth from the eukaryotic cell lines bioengineered by the Elder Things. Some of these life forms existed for thousands of millions of years and had linkages to other galaxies and universes. By the time Lovecraft wrote “Collapsing Cosmos” with R.H. Barlow, there were a reported total of 37 galaxies in our immediate universe.

Finally, in one of Lovecraft’s last tales, “The Haunter of the Dark,” at the end of that tale when Robert Blake is recording his last thoughts will waiting for the Haunter to visit him during the black-out he writes, “Trouble with memory. I see things. I never knew before. Other worlds and other galaxies… Dark… The lightning seems dark and the darkness seems light…”. For Robert Blake, staring into the shining trapezohedron provided a more realistic perspective of the Cosmos.

haunter_RachaelMayo The Haunter by Rachael Mayo

While Edwin Hubble discovered that our universe is not limited to the Milky Way and that other galaxies exist, I believe both he and Lovecraft would be amazed to know that just a few years ago the Hubble Space Telescope estimated that there are nearly 100 billion galaxies in the known Universe. However, just last year Hubble’s Ultra Deep Field survey revealed that volumes of space once thought empty are literally teeming with galaxies. Thus, while the most recent observations estimate that the observable Universe contains approximately 200 billion galaxies, studies from 2016 indicate that this estimate is at least 10 times too low. Thus, even Lovecraft’s 28 to 37 local cluster of galaxies may be an infinitesimally tiny fraction of the true structure of the Universe.

p1639ay-goodss-160930 Areas of space once thought empty have been revealed to be filled with galaxies by the Hubble surveys (www.nasa.gov).

Next time we will discuss eclipses in Lovecraft’s astronomical writings and his stories. Thank you – Fred.

Randolph Carter Traveling Through our Solar System Back to Earth

silkeythu_www.redhorsewebdesign                                                 The Silver Key (www.redhorsewebdesign.com)

This will be the last article for “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, at least for a while.  In this concluding article, we review the last stint of Carter’s journey back to Earth from dying Yaddith. We previously discussed his travels past Kynarth and Yuggoth, where Kynarth may actually be a trans-Neptunian Object called Charon and thought of as a moon for the dwarf-planet Yuggoth (called Pluto by most humans). Here we focus on some of the main planets Carter passes by on his way home to Earth. Again, the specific planets are cited in this passage:

“He saw Kynarth and Yuggoth on the rim, passed close to Neptune and glimpsed the hellish white fungi that spot it, learned an untellable secrete from the close-glimpsed mists of Jupiter and saw the horror on one of the satellites, and gazed at the Cyclopean ruins that sprawl over Mars’ ruddy disc.”

Neptune is the outermost planet of our solar system and is one of the two ice giants (the other being Uranus).  It is 2.8 billion miles or 30.07 A.U. away from the sun.  It takes Neptune 165 Earth years to make a complete orbit around the sun and a “day” on Neptune is approximately 16 hours (solarsystem.nasa.gov). As we have previously cited, Lovecraft called the discovery of Neptune “…one of the most remarkable achievements of astronomical science, being no mere accident, but the result of long and extremely precise calculation” (Collected Essays: Science, Volume 3 by S.T. Joshi, 2005) and he was correct.  Before the planet was actually discovered, its existence was theoretically predicted by “reverse calculating” the irregularities in the motion of Uranus.

Neptune.png Neptune

In the passage above Lovecraft specifically mentions “…the hellish white fungi that spot it…” What is particularly interesting about this is that more than half a century later, in the summer of 1989, the Voyager 2 spacecraft conducted a flyby of Neptune and its moon Triton. Voyager 2 passed by Neptune’s north pole at a distance of about 3,000 miles (4,950 kilometers), which is the closest humanity or its technology has gotten to this icy, outer world.

During the Voyager 2 mission the Great Dark Spot was identified on Neptune. Such Great Dark Spots are thought to form and dissipate over the course of several years. Indeed in 2016, another Great Dark Spot was identified on Neptune with the Hubble Space Telescope. These Dark Spots are high-pressure systems of anticyclonic storms and what is particularly interesting is that they are typically accompanied by bright companion clouds.

The Great Dark Spot is thought to be a high-pressure hole in the methane-cloud atmosphere is Neptune. The bright companion clouds are higher in the atmosphere, at or just below the tropopause layer, while the Darks Spots are in the lower altitudes of the troposphere. The high-pressure hole of the Great Dark Spots may concentrate the methane along the edges of the Spots, possibly also generating heat. Is it possible that these atmospheric ecotones of higher concentrations of slightly warmer methane form a habitat conducive for the hellish white fungi? In addition, why is the fungi called “hellish?” Is it possible the hellish conditions are in reference to these storms having winds of up to 1,500 miles per hour (2,400 kilometers per hour), which are some of the fastest winds in the Solar System? Or does it have to do with something related to the white fungus itself? Maybe it was something Carter witnessed as he passed by Neptune.

whitefungi2          Are Neptunian fungi similar to Earth fungi such as this one?

As Carter passed Jupiter he “…learned an untellable secrete from the close-glimpsed mists of Jupiter…” The atmosphere if Jupiter is composed primarily of hydrogen (90%) with helium accounting for almost 10% and other gases making up the remaining < 1%, including ammonia, sulfur, methane and water vapor. What untellable secrete the mists of Jupiter held only Carter knows; however, maybe Carter passed through the mists, down into the lower portions of the planet’s atmosphere to discover this untellable secret.

In addition to Jupiter itself, Carter also “…saw the horror on one of the satellites…” This may have been in reference to the insect philosophers that crawl proudly over the fourth moon of Jupiter, as cited in “Beyond the Walls of Sleep.” The “fourth moon” may be in reference to Jupiter’s moon Callisto, the fourth of the Galilean moons. However, of the four Galilean moons, Europa has the highest potential for harboring life. It has a thick crust of ice covering a liquid ocean that may possess life. With that said, the horror may be on either of these moons or even on one of the other 65 satellites of Jupiter.

Europa.jpg     One of Jupiter’s moons – Europa

Finally, as Carter approached Earth and passed Mars he “…gazed at the Cyclopean ruins that sprawl over Mars’ ruddy disc.” In general, Lovecraft was somewhat skeptical of life on Mars but he did not think it was out of the realm of possibility. However, other than Carter’s flyby Mars, Lovecraft makes no other reference to this planet in his tales. Thus, the Cyclopean ruins may be the remnants of an ancient civilization. Additionally, the cyclopean aspect of the ruins may indicate that they are spread over a large portion of land, similar to the Antarctician city of the Elder Things in At the Mountains of Madness. Thus, these Martian ruins may be spread over the largest volcano on Mars, Olympus Mons, which is also the Solar System’s tallest planetary mountain with a diameter of 374 miles and a total height of 15.5 miles. This makes Olympus Mons three time larger than Mount Everest and most of the peaks at the Mountains of Madness. Thus, the ancient, Cyclopean ruins that Carter observed on Mars may have been scattered over the Olympus Mons.

insectphil                                                                            An insect philosopher from one of the moons of Jupiter by Michael Bukowski (www.yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com)

Again, this is last article on “Through the Gates of the Silver Key.” At least for a while. Next time we will discuss World War I submarine technology in H.P. Lovecraft’s “The Temple.” Thank you – Fred.

Yaddithian Technology to Travel Through Space-Time

In the concluding chapters of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, the consciousness of Randolph Carter’s co-occupied the body of the Yaddithian Wizard Zkauba and eventually found a way of using Yaddithian technology to actually transport the physical body of the wizard through time and space in order to arrive on Earth. When Carter first ended up in the body of Zkauba he discovered that the Yaddithians had a technology called light-wave envelopes that allowed them to travel through vast expanses of time and space. However, similar to the Great Race of Yith, their space-time traveling technology was only limited to the mind and not the physical body.

trough_the_gates_of_the_silver_key_by_airborneterror-d6x54aq Through the Gates of the Silver Key by Air Borne Terror (www.deviantart.com)

We have cited in previous articles that Michio Kaku discusses the feasibility of uploading one’s consciousness and transferring it through vast expanses of space, to be downloaded into another biological being or some type of artificial construct in The Future of the Mind (2015). Such technology may be utilized by the Great Race of Yith, downloading their minds into an unsuspecting species and pushing the resident consciousness into Race’s previous bodies. Randolph Carter utilized a more metaphysical means of transferring his consciousness into the body of the Wizard Zkauba. However, in this case both consciousnesses remained in the same physical form and without the parchment, Carter was trapped in the Yaddithian’s body.

drmichiokaku12162013

While the Great Race of Yith can switch their consciousness with another individual, the Yaddithian found a way of transporting their consciousness through Space-Time. In the case of the Yaddithians, their consciousness is encased in a light-wave envelope and is not downloaded into other being or machine. Instead these light-wave envelopes provide the means for a consciousness to travel and survey the cosmos in order to conduct passive observations, something Lovecraft often fantasized about and also made reference to with the brain cylinders of the Mi-Go in “The Whisperer in Darkness.”

So how did these light-wave envelopes function? Based on the description given by Carter, the envelope must operate on a quantum level.  A number of times they are described as a light-wave envelope (e.g. photon, a type of boson subatomic particle) and once it is referred to as composed of an electron-activated metal (electrons as well as protons and neutrons are a type of particle called fermions, which are the fundamental building blocks of matter we are familiar with; not antimatter, not dark matter). If the Space-Time envelopes were only described as light-waves then we would hypothesize that the envelope would work similar to what Kaku describes – placing the data of one’s consciousness onto a light wave and beaming it to a receiving waystation. In contrast, if it was only described as an electron-activated metal, then the data may be placed onto the wave function of the electron as it spins around the nucleus. The fact that both particles are mentioned indicates that the technology may be operating on a “sub-quantum” level that we do not yet understand.

yaddithian_by_mara999-d9tc3bj

Yaddithian by Mara999 (www.deivantart.com)

Subquantum Kinetics is an alternative to the more conventional approach to quantum mechanics where a set of theories are attempted to be stitched together create the Unified Field Theory of physics. In contrast, subquantum kinetics presents a set of well-ordered reaction processes that are proposed to take place at the subquantum level. Collectively, these reaction processes are defined as the transmuting ether, an active substrate that is quite different from the passive mechanical ethers considered in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and frequently cited by H.P. Lovecraft. In the case of intergalactic travel by the Mi-Go or the Elder Things, Lovecraft hypothesized that this was accomplished by their propulsion through the “luminiferous aether.”

Subquantum Kinetics further proposes that the concentrations of the substrates composing this ether are the energy potential fields that form the basis of all matter and energy in our universe (The Cosmic Ether: Introduction to Subquantum Kinetics by Paul A. LaViolette from Physics Procedia, Volume 38, 2012, pages 326-349). The operation of these ether reactions causes wave-like field gradients (spatial concentration patterns) to emerge and form the observable quantum level structures and physical phenomena (e.g., subatomic particles with mass, charge, spin, and force field effects and electromagnetic waves). I have also seen an explanation of subquantum kinetics as an attempt “…to explain how the building blocks of the universe (protons, neutrons and photons) are formed continuously and naturally from reactions occurring in higher-dimensional non-physical space.”

SQK-227x300

I know next to nothing about subquantum kinetics and need to learn more; however, I am not familiar with any experiment evidence to support this hypothesis. With that said, subquantum kinetics appears to avoid the compilations of jamming a number of physical forces into one Unifying Theory by treating all energy and matter the same on the sub-sub-atomic level. Thus, instead of ending up with a Unifying Theory, you are starting with one. Is it possible that the Yaddithians utilized subquantum kinetics to develop a means of transporting one’s consciousness through Space-Time? If this is the case, then Randolph Carter actually improved upon this technology by retrofitting it so one’s physical body as well as their consciousness could be transported. However, keep in mind that it took Carter thousands of years to perfect this technology and even so he still could not separate his consciousness from the Yaddithian wizard without the aid of the parchment and the Silver Key.

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Next time we conclude the odyssey of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” by reviewing some of the worlds Carter passed by as he returned to Earth.  Thank you – Fred.

Preparing the Yaddithian Body for the Hazards of Earth

The end of Chapter VI of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price ended with the Randolph Carter’s consciousness co-occupying the body of the Yaddithian Wizard Zkauba and leaving Yaddith as the bholes were destroying that world. Carter devised a way to leave Yaddith with a light-wave envelope, a technology that is typically limited the transportation of a consciousness through time and space. To accomplish this goal of retrofitting the light-wave envelope for a physical body, Carter had to develop a drug to suppress the consciousness of Zkauba.

zkauba_by_mara999-d9tkzbf The Yaddithian Wizard Zkauba and the human Randolph Carter by Mara999 (www.deviantart.com)

In addition to a mode of transport for the physical body of Zkauba, Carter had to anticipate how a Yaddithian would survive on Earth. For example, a number of times Carter mentioned he need to immunize the Yaddithian body against bacteria and other potential pathogenic microbial life. However, there is no mention if the Yaddithian body harbored microflora that had the potential to introduce virulent alien diseases to humans or other species on Earth.

The introduction of any alien disease-producing species, whether from another continent or another world, has the potential to quickly spread through and negatively impact a population that has never been exposed. Some actual examples of this include the West Nile virus, which was originally from the Nile delta region and the Zika virus, which was originally identified from the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa. In both of these cases these viruses eventually made their way to North America, via mosquitoes, where they quickly spread. However, in the case of the Carter – Zkauba Yaddithian no potential disease-bearing microorganisms were documented. Nevertheless, Carter took precautions against Earth-bound microorganisms impacting his Yaddithian body. It is interesting to note the immunization that Carter used was a “bacterial agent” but nothing else yet is known about this material.

randolph_carter_nug_soth_by_yumegari                                                        Randolph Carter Nug Soth by Yumegari (www.deviantart.com)

In addition to taking precautions against disease, Carter also had to acclimate the Yaddithian body to the gravity of Earth. Since the Yaddithian were described as having some type of exoskeleton, they can be thought of as some type of alien invertebrate.  Yaddithian were described as being approximately the same height, although somewhat squat, as humans as well as being bipedal. This is in sharp contrast to the substantially smaller-sized arthropods on Earth and do not walk solely on two legs. The size limitations of Earth-bound arthropods are largely due to the Earth’s gravity and existing oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere. Approximately 300 million years ago (the Carboniferous period) when the atmospheric oxygen reached their geologically maximum concentration of 35%, insects were in fact larger. Some of these fossilized dragonflies (of the genus Meganeura) have a wing span of up to 65 centimeters or slightly over 2 feet! In contrast, today the concentration of oxygen in our atmosphere is approximately 21% and dragonflies are a lot smaller.

meganeura-size A comparison of a human and the dragonfly Meganeura (www.prehistoric-wildlife.com)

Carter’s adjustments to his Yaddithian body were most likely conducted to acclimate to Earth’s heavier gravity and/or lower atmospheric oxygen concentrations relative to Yaddith. More than likely without such adjustments, Earth gravity would crush at least selection portions of the Yaddithian’s exoskeleton resulting in suffocation. However, these adjustments may be more complicated than we original hypothesize. For example, Yaddith may have been smaller than Earth and thus have a smaller gravitational field; however, a lower gravity could make it more difficult for the development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere. In addition, we are assuming that the Yaddithians use oxygen for respiration. It may be that Yaddithians used some other gaseous substance for respiration and Carter had to modify his respiratory system to breath oxygen. However, if Yaddith did have a lower gravity than Earth, then it would generally have a more difficult time retaining any gases that would otherwise drift into space. Perhaps the dholes exerted a gaseous waste that was utilized by the Yaddithians for respiration. In any event, Carter’s physiological modifications to his Yaddithian body allowed him to survive on Earth. Next time we will discuss the light-wave envelope transport technology. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Was Randolph Carter Responsible for the Destruction of Yaddith?

In “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter’s consciousness is “downloaded” into an insectoid-like being who lives on the planet Yaddith. This specific Yaddithian individual is the Wizard Zkauba. Since both consciousnesses are sharing the same body there are times that Carter dominates and others that Zkauba dominates. Such conditions may have produced symptoms similar to schizophrenia.

lovecraft___dhole_of_yaddith_by_kingovrats-d62dn1t A Dhole of Yaddith by King Ov Rats (www.deviantart.com)

As a wizard of Yaddith, one of Zkauba’s jobs was “weaving spells to keep the frightful bholes in their burrows…” For the sake of this discussion, a bhole is thought to be either the same thing or closely related to the dholes identified in other tales of Lovecraft. Apparently, the “bleached, viscous bholes” were constantly tunneling through Yaddith and the spells of the Yaddithian wizards would keep these creatures in a relative inactive or dormant state. Desperate to get back to Earth, Carter found a drug on Yaddith that could be used to keep Zkauba’s consciousness in a perpetual dormant state, yet allow Carter to have access of the knowledge and memories of the wizard. Thus, the next time Carter dominated the body of Zkauba, he made and administered the drug to himself.

Keeping Zkauba in a dormant state did allow Carter to eventually successfully (somewhat) leave Yaddith, which we will discuss next time. As part of this process he had to move forward in time in order to ensure he would reach Earth approximately close to when he initially left. As he left Yaddith he saw, “Below him the ground was festering with gigantic bholes; and even as he looked, one reared up several hundred feet and levelled a bleached, viscous end at him.”

dhole                                                                             Dhole by Michael Bukowski (www.yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com)

Based on this text, the eventual destruction of Yaddith was due to the bholes increasing in size and numbers and reaching the surface. If the bhole population was large enough, it may have even resulted in the eventual destruction of Yaddith itself. The planet may have internally collapsed, breaking apart into a collection of small pieces, producing a miniature asteroid field or a dwarf planet system surrounded by countless minor moons. Or, the size and density of the bhole population may have kept the world intact but slowly converted it into a literal “living planet” continuously shifting, moving and feeding on itself. Obviously, the Yaddithian civilization died with this domination of the bhole with a few possibly escaping through time and space.

150804142947_1_900x600 Did Yaddith eventually become a living planet, seething with millions of bholes feeding on eat other’s wastes?

With Zkauba’s consciousness in a dormant state, he could no longer perform the ritual to keep the bholes inactive. Carter certainly was not continuing these spells; he was busy figuring out how to get back to Earth. The only spell he had was “a doubly potent spell with which to hold back the bholes at the moment of his starting from the black, dead Yaddith of the inconceivable future.”

Given these circumstances, this begs the question: was Randolph Carter at least partially responsible for the destruction of Yaddithian civilization? If Carter was not so preoccupied with finding a way home and Zkauba could continue the spells to keep the bholes inactive, would this have prevented or at least delayed the eventual honeycombing of Yaddith as a result of bhole activity? If this is the case, the destruction of Yaddith occurred in the distant past but was triggered by the consciousness of a strange ape-like descendent who came from the distant future. Thus, the path to Yaddith’s destruction was not set into motion until Carter, a being of the distant future, traveled back in time. Essentially, Carter’s choice to have access to all of Space-Time with the aid of the Silver Key resulted in the destruction of an entire civilization in the past.

bhole_by_mythadvocate-d9u9b64                                                                    A bhole (www.aaronsiddall.com)

Next time we will discuss the science behind Carter’s escape from Yaddith. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter VI, Galaxies and Light-Beam Envelope Technology

As described in Chapter VI of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, the insectoid-like beings of Yaddith were a technologically advanced species that could transport their consciousness through time and space similar to the Great Race. For the Yaddithians this was done with the use of “light-beam envelopes.”

Yaddith_JacquesBrodier_www.thewire.co.uk Yaddith by Jacques Brodier (www.thewire.co.uk)

When Randolph Carter’s consciousness entered the body of the Yaddithian wizard Zkauba, he took advantage of the light-beam envelope technology to travel throughout the twenty-eight galaxies and over ten thousand worlds known by the Yaddithians. Currently, based on observations made with the Hubble Telescope it is estimated that there are 100 billion galaxies in the Universe but this estimate is expected to increase to around 200 billion as improvements and refinements are made in telescope technology.

In Lovecraft’s time, the concept of a galaxy was relatively new. Prior to the early 20th century galaxies were described as globular star clusters or spiral nebulae. However, by the early 20th century Harlow Shapely determined the distribution, size and shape of some of these globular star clusters as well as the Milky Way. It was Shapely who determined that the Milky Way bulged in the center, surrounded by a large, flat area (http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/galaxy2.htm). Shapely later called the identified star clusters or nebulae as “island universes” or galaxies. Others claimed that the nebulae were part of the Milky Way. Thus, in the early 20th century there was a debate on whether the Milk Way was essentially the Universe or if it was just one of many galaxies in a much larger Universe.

OSC_Astro_28_01_Abell2744                                               A very small fraction of the billions of galaxies identified by the Hubble Telescope

Toward the end of 1924 the debate was settled by Edwin Hubble. Using his 100-inch diameter telescope at Mount Wilson California, Hubble identified, with the use of Cepheid variables (stars that pulsate on a regular basis, producing a stable period and amplitude of brightness) that a spiral nebula had structure and stars similar to but separate from the Milk Way. This confirmed the presence of another galaxy and those Cepheid variables became part of the galaxy known as Andromeda. Thanks to Hubble, it was determined that the Milky Way galaxy is not the Universe but one of other galaxies spread throughout the Cosmos. The Universe got a whole lot bigger thanks to Hubble.

hubble_300                                                                                            One of Edwin Hubble’s first photographs of the Andromeda Galaxy (also known as M31)

The Yaddithians are known to be able to have the ability to travel through the 28 known galaxies. Possibly by coincidence, in the Superman mythos it is also stated that there are 28 known galaxies. I was curious why this number of 28 keeps coming up when we now know there are literally billions of galaxies. I hypothesize that this number of 28 stems from the findings of Hubble. After his confirmation that other galaxies exist, Hubble went on to discover another couple dozen galaxies. Thus, while at this time I cannot find an actual document to confirm this, I hypothesize that in the mid-1920’s as Hubble’s findings were presented to the general public somewhere it may have stated that Hubble identified 28 galaxies, which is why this number has been used in a number of venues.

Andromeda_m31_bers_1824 A more recent photograph of the Andromeda Galaxy one of the “local 28” for Yaddithians

Relative to the Yaddithians, the 28 galaxies may represent a local “cluster” of galaxies, composed of a few large galaxies, such as the Milky Way and the Andromeda, and a series of satellite galaxies that surround the larger ones. From a practical standpoint, traveling throughout Space-Time for the Yaddithians may be limited to these 28. As we have suggested with the Great Race’s ability to travel through Space-Time, the Yaddithian may transmit their consciousnesses through the Universe on a laser beam, to be deposited into the mind of another sentient being. The wavelength of a laser beam is microscopic and you can compress vast amounts of information on its wave pattern; even more data can be transferred onto a beam of X-rays, which has a wavelength smaller than an individual atom (The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind by Michio Kaku, 2014).

55-24760-green_laser_teaser                          Humans can transfer 26 Terabits of information per second with the use of laser technology. Do the light-beam envelopes of the Yaddithians perform a similar function but on a larger scale? Transferring an entire consciousness through Space-Time on a laser?

The Yaddithians probably used their light-beam envelopes to transmit their minds, with the aid of laser beams or X-rays as carrier waves, through controlled wormholes that opened up hyperspace and “beam” their minds into other devices or the “receptive” organisms on other worlds or in other times. Again, similar technology is utilized by the Great Race; however, for them instead of using light-beam envelopes, they used strange mechanical devices in conjunction with some alien crystals. In each case the result is the same – downloading the consciousness of an individual into a device and then immediately transferring it through Space-Time (most likely through a worm hole) into a new receptacle, which may be another organism or some type of artificial or cybernetic device.

lovecraft___snouted_yaddithian_by_kingovrats-d68pvtf                    Illustration of a Yaddithian by King Ov Rats. (www.deviantart.com)

In conclusion, it appears that both the Great Race of Yith and the Yaddithians had the ability to consciously travel through Space-Time. However, in order to get back to Earth Randolph Carter, trapped in the body of the Yaddithian wizard Zkauba, had to modify a light-beam envelope so that it could transport both the body as well as the mind of the individual. This topic, as well as the resulting cost this had on Yaddith, will be discussed next time. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter VI, Welcome to Yaddith

Chapter V of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, ended with Randolph Carter’s consciousness entering the body of a squat, tapir-snouted and clawed inhabitant of a world illuminated by five multi-colored suns. This strange world of bizarre metal towers and cryptical floating cylinders is Yaddith, which is the focus on this article. Going into Chapter VI it is revealed this strange world was Yaddith.

Surface_of_Yaddith_www.demonbane.wikia.com Surface of Yaddith. Note the presence of five suns in the horizon (http://www.demonbane.wikia.com)

The main sentient inhabitants of Yaddith were snouted, anthropomorphic, insectoid-like beings and through his dream travels, combined with tilting or modifying one’s consciousness-angles, Carter found himself in one of these clawed, snouted beings – a wizard named Zkauba. Given that Yaddith had five suns the atmosphere was ablaze with a wide variety of solar colors. As previously eluded to, traveling through consciousness-angles may be a metaphysical interpretation of traveling through the Space-Times of the Multiverse, similar to the example given with a sphere entering flatland. Once Carter’s mind entered the body of Zkauba, he found his consciousness “marooned” in the Yaddithian’s body. In addition, Carter had to “share” the body with Zkauba. More will be discussed about this in an upcoming article; this article focuses on Yaddith.

lovecraft___zkauba__yaddithian_iii_by_kingovrats-db1i967                     The Wizard Zkauba; Yaddithian III by KingOvRats (http://www.deviantart.com)

As previously cited Yaddith is in a five-star system so it is unlikely that this world experiences night, although the amount of daylight must widely vary, based on how many suns shine on the world at the same time. In addition, Yaddith probably experiences higher amounts of radiation (e.g. visible light, radio waves, infra-red, UV-radiation, infra-red, cosmic rays, etc.) relative to Earth. This means that Yaddith’s magnetosphere is probably strong enough to repel the charged particles that emanate from the multi-suns and/or the resident biota of Yaddith have evolved to be adapted to exist in an environment that is bombarded with high amounts of radiation. However, not all life on Yaddith may be well adapted to the highly-irradiated surface of this world.

The burrowing inner horrors of Yaddith were large, worm-like creatures called bholes (also referred to as dholes in some cases), which may have used the “unexplained” tunnels to burrow and move throughout the planet. The bholes may prefer to stay underground to avoid the high amounts of radiation Yaddith may receive from its five suns. However, it appears that these creatures were constantly trying to reach the surface but were prevented from doing so by spells performed by the Yaddithian wizards including Zkauba. Eventually, the entire world of Yaddith would be overrun by the bholes resulting in the extinction of the Yaddithians.

lovecraft___dhole_of_yaddith_iii_by_kingovrats-d9uxtst Dhole of Yaddith III by KingOvRats (http://www.deviantart.com)

As previously mentioned, the Yaddithians, to some known as the nug-soth, were anthropomorphic insectoid-like beings. Given this insectoid-like description the Yaddithians more than likely had some type of exoskeleton. Whether this exoskeleton was composed of chitin like the arthropods on Earth or some type of similar or analogous material, it is most likely that the Yaddithians did possess some type of exoskeleton Typically, invertebrates with exoskeletons on Earth are limited in size by a number of physical constraints such as supporting an efficient respiratory / circulatory system in an armored organism. However, another important factor that limits the size of invertebrates on Earth is our planet’s gravitational pull. However, depending on what the Yaddithian exoskeleton is made of as well as gravitational pull of Yaddith, conditions on that world may have favored the development of large, anthropomorphic insect-like entities who stand upright with exoskeletons.

Similar to the Great Race of Yith, the Yaddithians had the ability to transport their minds through time and space, using a technology called “light-bean envelopes.” The Yaddithians made trips to worlds distributed throughout twenty-eight galaxies and collected knowledge from over ten thousand worlds. The libraries of the Yaddithians must rival those of the Great Race. Some of the nearby worlds that the Yaddithians frequently visited included Shonhi, Mthura and Kath but nothing is known of these planets.

22-yadithian                                                                                                      Yaddithian by Michael Bukowski (http://www.yog-blogsoth.blogspot.com)

Next time we will discuss more about the technology of Yaddithian culture and how Randolph Carter used this technology to eventually leave this world to return to Earth.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter V, part 2: Other Worlds and Entities

In Chapter V of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter describes how he is a “supreme archetype” of many beings on many worlds. Based on the documentation, Carter is one of the original models used to produce these other beings.  These passages are very metaphysical and I have presented hypotheses that may explain these thoughts of Carter’s. For example, these thoughts of being part of a larger “string” of consciousnesses may be Carter’s mind connecting to others in the Multiverse. An alternative hypothesis may be that these thoughts may be the result of having direct contact with Yog-Sothoth. Again, this part of Chapter V is more metaphysical than scientific so I will focus on some of the other subjects mentioned toward the end of this chapter.

yog_sothoth_over_the_bay Yog-Sothoth over the Bay by Sigmanus (www.deivantart.com)

Some of the “other” Carters could be accessed “…by a variation in the angle of the consciousness-plane which cuts it.” This passage may indicate that in order to have access to other consciousness, one has to know how to utilize those higher dimensions proposed by String Theory. One of these consciousnesses was an entity who “…dwelt in primal Hyperborea and worshiped black, plastic Tsathoggua after flying down from Kythanil, the double planet that once revolved around Arcturus.”

tumblr_n1ar2vsnDG1rvh8o4o1_1280

Was Carter one of the non-human worshipers of Tsathoggua in ancient Hyperborea? Artwork by Mark E. Rogers

Tsathoggua is an entity that was discovered by Clark Ashton Smith and exists on Cykranosh; which to us is known as Saturn. There is some conflicting information on if Tsathoggua still dwells on Cykranosh or if it was brought to Earth by some unknown entities (Harms, 1998). There may be some type of inter-dimensional gate that connects Earth with Cykranosh, which would explain this historical confusion. Regardless, according to Carter, Tsathoggua may have originated from Kythanil and arrived on Cykranosh during the early formation of our Solar System.

saturn_aurora_hubble_28_jan_2004_med                                                                          Cykranosh, known to us as Saturn (www.nasa.gov)

As cited by Carter, Kythanil is a double planet system that once revolved around the red star Arcturus. While not officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union, a double planet system is a binary system where both bodies have planetary mass. For example, the Pluto (Yuggoth) – Charon (largest moon of Yuggoth) system can be thought of as a double planet. In fact, given the large size of our moon relative to the size of Earth, the European Space Agency has described the Earth – Moon system as a double planet. Very little is known of Kythanil expect that “doubtfully shaped” dwellers exist on this world. While Tsathoggua is frequently described as a large, sloth-like, bat creature, it is also frequently described as amorphous (e.g. black and plastic as quoted above). Thus, Kythanil may be the home world of Tsathoggua.

lovecraft___tsathoggua_idol_for_rpg_by_kingovrats-d6jht1t Tsathoggua Idol by King Ov Rats (www.deviantart.com)

Carter also mentions “…trans-galactic Shonhi, or a four-dimensioned gaseous consciousness in an older space-time continuum…” An older space-time continuum may actually refer to before the Big Bang. If there was some type of Space-Time before the Big Bang, which collapsed and exploded forming our Space-Time, how could any previously existing entity survive this? The four dimensions of the Shonhi may refer to four spatial dimensions. We exist in a three spatial dimensions / one temporal dimension Space-Time continuum. The trans-galactic Shonhi may have escaped destruction by entering a higher fourth spatial dimension.

The gaseous status of the Shonhi may be our limited three-dimensional senses trying to perceive a four-dimensional entity. This is similar to Edward Abbot’s Flatland where a two-dimensional being, like a square or circle, would have a difficult time perceiving the true form and shape a three-dimensional being like a sphere. Even if the sphere entered Flatland, passing through its Space-Time, it would appear first as a point, expand to a one-dimensional line, reach a maximum length, then decrease in length until it becomes a point and then disappears. This encounter between a sphere and a circle does not provide a true sense to the circle what the sphere actually looks like; the same may be for the Shonhi. To us three-dimensional entities a four-dimensional entity may look to us like a gas; however, the true form and shape of the Shonhi may be very different and we just don’t have the fourth dimensional senses to “see” what they really look like.

flatfl                                                                                                Attempting to perceive what a three dimensional sphere would look like in two dimensional universe

Another strange entity briefly described by Carter was the “…vegetable brain of the future on a dark radio-active comet of inconceivable orbit…” The fact that this entity is described as “vegetable” indicates it must be some form of autotroph, which is an organism that has the ability to produce complex organic compounds from simple substances. If the energy used to product these compounds is from light the mode of autotrophy is called photosynthesis, if energy is from inorganic chemical reactions it’s called chemosynthesis.

Given that the vegetable brain lives on the surface of a comet reveals that more than likely this entity is not a photosynthetic autotroph since they need light to exist. A comet in an inconceivable orbit spends the vast majority of its time in deep, dark space. As a comet comes closer to a star it does receive some of this light energy; indeed this is what produces the comet’s tail. However, the statement that the vegetable brain exists on a dark radio-active comet, provides evidence that it’s nutritional mode of action may be through chemosynthesis or possibly through a mode of autotrophy that uses radioactivity as a source of energy. For example, three specific species of fungi have been identified in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that exhibit higher rates of growth and assimilation of acetate when exposed to higher amounts of radiation. A similar mode of nutrition may be utilized by the vegetation brains; using the radiation emitted from the comet to break down simple organic compounds scattered on the surface of the comet. Indeed, the ESA’s Philae lander detected complex organic compounds, like amino acids, on the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

1024px-Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungus that thrives on radioactivity as a source of energy (www.wikipedia.com)

Finally, the term “dark” may also be an indication that this autotrophic entity feeds on dark matter or dark energy; however, there is no additional information to support this hypothesis.

At one point Carter mentions that observes a dim fantastic world that is in a quintuple star system “…in an unsuspected galaxy.” Carter describes a clawed and snouted race that battles burrowing inner horrors. Based on this scant piece of information it sounds like there is a predatory species that exists underneath the surface of this unnamed world.  Maybe the radiation from the five multi-colored suns is harmful to the burrowing inner horrors and they utilize the “unexplained tunnels” to reach the surface to attack and feed on the clawed and tapir-snouted inhabitants of the surface. This world illuminated by five suns, has bizarre metal towers and cryptical floating cylinders but the name of this world is not provided.

Next time we will move into Chapter VI where Carter dreams of the wizard Zkauba on the planet Yaddith. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter V, part 1: Higher Dimensions

yog_sothoth_by_chivohit-d5b8wrr Yog-Sothoth by Chivohit (www.deviantart.com)

At the end of Chapter IV of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter says to Yog-Sothoth that he is ready to peer beyond the Veil of reality. Suddenly, Carter’s mind is flooded with knowledge on the true nature of the cosmos. One concept that was discussed in some detail was how our perception of a “tri-dimensional world” or even a four-dimensional Space-Time does not represent the true nature and structure of the Universe / Multiverse. Additionally, Carter realizes that human senses can only perceive of a portion of reality; however, once he passed beyond the Ultimate Gate he saw “…in the brooding shadows of that which had been first a vortex of power and then an illimitable void, a sweep of creation that dizzed his senses.”

Yog-Sothoth continued to fill Carter’s mind with energy waves of information to obtain a better understanding of the Universe. Carter then understood that he was an infinitesimal part of a multiform entity; was this a realization and subsequent access to other beings in other Multiverses? Carter also understood that

“…every figure of space is but the result of the intersection by a plane of some corresponding figure of one more dimension – as a square is cut from a cube or a circle from a sphere. The cube and sphere, of three dimensions, are thus cut from corresponding forms of four dimensions that men know only through guesses and dreams; and these in turn are cut from forms of five dimensions, and so on up to the dizzy and reachless heights of archetypal infinity.”

yog_sothoth_by_nightserpent                                                               Yog-Sothoth by Nightserpent

The net result of this higher multi-dimensional view of reality is that our 3-space and 1-time Universe is merely a shadow or illusion of the true nature of substance and reality. Thus, the way the shadow of a cube is 2-dimensional representation of a cube in a 2-dimensional world, the Tesseract is a 3-dimensional shadow representation of a hypercube in 3-dimensional space (see below). According to Lovecraft and Price, if we had the appropriate knowledge and senses, where the Veil of reality has been pulled aside, we would perceive the true, multi-dimensional nature of reality.

cube-shadow                                                             The shadow of a cube is a 2-dimensional representation of the cube

hqdefault                                                     The Tesseract is a 3-dimensional shadow representation of a 4-dimensional hypercube.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries mathematicians were investigating geometry beyond the three known spatial dimensions, as well as working on “non-Euclidean” geometry, which is essentially a description of curved space and shapes. A lot of misinformation and pseudoscience was developed in light of these investigations, essentially from people who knew very little about the science. However, to many mathematicians surprise, such investigations into curved fourth dimensional Space-Time had a practical application in Einstein’s work on gravity and how the amount of matter determines the type of geometry that exists in the surrounding space (https://web2.ph.utexas.edu/~coker2/index.files/4d.shtml). As Kip S. Thorn put it in his essay Spacetime Warps and the Quantum World in The Future of Spacetime (2002), “…Einstein concluded that space and time are warped by matter and energy and that this warpage is responsible for the gravity that holds us to the surface of the Earth.”

yog_www.johncoulhart.com                                                                           Yog-Sothoth by John Coulhart (www.johncoulhart.com)

While higher dimensional mathematics continued through the 20th century, incorporating high dimensional concepts into physics and the nature of reality went largely unsuccessful. However, with quantum physics, the need to include more dimensions seemed apparent but it was in the 1980’s with the development of String Theory that the need for higher dimensional math appeared necessary. In order to include gravity into a single equation with the other forces of nature (electromagnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear) String Theory needed 9 or 10 spatial dimensions and one dimension of time (https://web2.ph.utexas.edu/~coker2/index.files/4d.shtml). In turn, String Theory has led to M-Theory, where the strings are looped and/or tethered to surfaces or membranes, possibly stitching together the Multiverse.

Again, before there was a mathematical need for higher dimensions in many of the leading theories of physics, discussions on this subject were largely thought of purely the stuff of fiction. Not only that, but many were criticized for considering such concepts or ideas. In his article “H.P. Lovecraft and Pseudomathematics” in Darrell Schweitzer’s Discovering H.P. Lovecraft (1995), Robert Weinberg dismisses Lovecraft’s thoughts of higher dimensions discussed in many of his stories. Weinberg states, “The existence of higher dimensions should be of little concern to this world as any contact with such dimensions is impossible.” Based on the current state of both String Theory and M-Theory higher dimensions are absolutely essential working through the development of a Standard, Unifying Theory.

41VgopMcVlL__SX312_BO1,204,203,200_

Weinberg also goes on in the article to state, “It is impossible (not unlikely or not yet possible, but impossible, actually shown to be never possible) to construct a higher dimension from a lower one.” That is a pretty definitive statement. While it may not be possible to construct a higher dimension, we can represent or model high dimensions (see above). Also, such higher dimensions may be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the Universe. Thus, I think casually discarding an idea or hypothesis and saying it’s just not possible or relevant can be dangerous in science. Who knows, maybe the next generation of physicists will come up with a new theory that completely does away with the need for String Theory and the consideration of higher dimensions. However, if working through String Theory and these ideas have led others into investigations that shine a little more light on the true nature of reality then that is a good thing. Science is very much built upon its history; Einstein’s General Relativity did not result in throwing out Newton’s Principles of Gravity, just like Quantum Mechanics did not result in throwing out General Relativity. It should also be emphasized that we always learn something even when our hypothesis is not proven correct.

yog-sothoth_www.lostsouls.org

Yog-Sothoth (www.lostsouls.org)

Getting back to “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” three dimensional entities like us who exist in linear time, cannot perceive the higher dimensions that are “wrapped and curled up,” tucked away from our perception. However, other entities, from other Universes with slight modifications in their natural laws, may be able to perceive or even have access to higher dimensions, which may allow them to travel through time and space in very unconventional ways (e.g. The Dreams in the Witch-House).

Based on what we know about dimensionality and Space-Time, life can only exist in a Universe of three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension. Based on Max Tegmark’s paper “On the Dimensionality of Spacetime” (Class. Quantum Gav. 14 (1997), L69-L75), other realities with more or less dimensions than ours would be “dead worlds.” Tegmark states in his abstract “In a space with more than three dimensions, there can be no traditional atoms and perhaps no stable structures.” This may be the case, however maybe many Lovecraftian entities can access the energy in these higher dimensions to conduct incredible feats thorough time and space. Thus, Yog-Sothoth maybe a unique and fluid form of life that both easily travels through and exists in all of these dimensions at the same time. If Tegmark’s idea does hold true, then any inhibited Universe, where atoms are stable enough to eventually rise to life, would be squeezed into that little box labeled “We Are Here” in the figure shown below.

2000px-Spacetime_dimensionality_svg.png

Next time we will wrap up our discussion of Chapter V in “Through the Gates of the Silver Key” with a discussion of some of the exoplanets described by Randolph Carter. Thank you – Fred.

Through the Gates of the Silver Key: Chapter IV, Yog-Sothoth and the Multiverse

In Chapter IV of “Through the Gates of the Silver Key,” written by H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffmann Price, Randolph Carter passes through the Ultimate Gate. After passing through the Ultimate Gate, Carter initially still feels he is a “fixed point in the dimensional seething,” but then he begins to lose his sense of space and time in our reality. This statement indicates that passing through this gate may be somehow going outside of our known Space-Time Universe. For example, Carter realized that he is not just one person but many people over the span of linear time. All at once he was that boy at his Uncle and Aunt’s farm in October 1883, as well as the adult who is on the other side of the Ultimate Gate, talking to the Ancient One Umr At-Tawil. Humans are entities grounded in linear time and if this sense of “cause and effect,” which is the essence of time, is removed the past, present and future would certainly become difficult to distinguish from each another.

234edc2913c24e7eb8a9cc8b09858e98                                                                  Yog-Sothoth by Daigoro115

Layered on this loss of linear time is Carter’s loss of “self.” Beyond the Ultimate Gate Randolph Carter acknowledged the existence of multiple “Carters.” Carter felt his self beyond the limitations of one individual. He perceived himself as a variety of entities and creatures – “…humans and non-human, vertebrate and invertebrate, conscious and mindless, animal and vegetable.” He also perceived Carters beyond Earth, on other planets, in other galaxies and perhaps even other Universes (called cosmic continua in the story).

This loss of both linear time and individual self and described by Carter was one of the supreme horrors he experienced. Indeed, in a number of instances in Lovecraft’s tales, few individuals come back from beyond our Space-Time reality sane. As “quasi-Carter” struggles to stay grounded in his self and prevent the loss of his individuality, he sensed the presence of an entity beyond our Space Time.

lovecraft___yog_sothoth___lurker_at_the_threshold_by_kingovrats-d66k92p Yog-Sothoth, Lurker at the Threshold by King Ov Rats (www.deivantart.com)

“It was an All-in-One and One-in-All of limitless being and self – not merely a thing of one Space-Time continuum, but allied to the ultimate animating essence of existence’s whole unbounded sweep – the last, utter sweep which has no confines and which outreaches fancy and mathematics alike. It was perhaps that which certain secrete cults of earth have whispered of as YOG-SOTHOTH, and which has been a deity under other names;”

This entity was actually attempting to communicate with Carter in a concentration of energy that was almost described as painful. This combination of both mental pain and loss of self are a few symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has been described by some as a self-disorder or ipseity disturbance (ipse is Latin for “self” or “itself”) and is associated with complementary distortions of the act of awareness (Schizophrenia, Consciousness, and the Self by Louis A. Sass and Josef Parnas; Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(3):427-444, 2003). Is it possible that some forms of schizophrenia are the result of individuals having some type of contact with Yog-Sothoth?

Yog_sothoth_rising_by_butttornado-d6ubvy6 Yog-Sothoth rising by Richard Luong (www.luongart.hostoi.com)

Yog-Sothoth has been mentioned numerous times in Lovecraft’s tales and tends to be more associated with magic and metaphysics than science. Obviously, how Yog-Sothoth is presented or described depends on the philosophical perspective and knowledge base of the person involved. Thus, is it not surprising that Joseph Curwen in “The Case of Charles Dexter Ward” or Old Wizard Whateley in “The Dunwich Horror” describe Yog-Sothoth as some type of demon to be summoned. However Yog-Sothoth is being perceived, whether from a magical or scientific point of view, there are some common themes associated with this entity. Frequently, it is stated that the past, present and future are all one in Yog-Sothoth. Again, this is another reference to this entity not being confined to the limitations of linear time. Yog-Sothoth is also described as being the “key and the gate,” which refers to the fact that access to beyond our Space-Time reality is through Yog-Sothoth. This access can be opening the “door” to allow things from outside our Space-Time in or allow residents of our Universe, such as Randolph Carter, to go outside of our Space-Time.

While Yog-Sothoth is described as the key and the gate, it seems to be much more than that when Lovecraft’s tales are reviewed. In a number of instances Yog-Sothoth is said to be “where the spheres meet.” In “The Horror in the Museum,” co-written by Lovecraft and Hazel Heald, Yog-Sothoth is described as a “…a congeries of iridescent globes…” These descriptions may be veiled references to the Multiverse structure of reality.

yog_sothoth_by_verreaux-d38lggo                     Yog-Sothoth by Verreaux (www.deivantart.com)

The prevailing concept of the Multiverse is that quantum fluctuations during the inflation phase of the Universe sparks the creation of bubble Universe that then inflate on their own, making more bubble Universes into infinity. However, there is now a competing theory that the quantum fluctuations did not occur until the inflation phase was complete, creating an overlapping, finite Multiverse (see below). Whatever theory is more representative of the Multiverse concept, Yog-Sothoth seems to be “stitched” or “woven” into the very fabric of the Multiverse and in order travel through or go beyond the Multiverse one must make some sort of contact with Yog-Sothoth. Unfortunately, even briefly encountering this entity can result in insanity.

Multi_www.newscientist.com Multiverse Concepts (www.newscientist.com)

In Carter’s encounter with Yog-Sothoth it is revealed that the Ancient Ones, like Umr At-Tawil, are manifestations or extensions of this Old One into our Space-Time. Yog-Sothoth also communicates to Carter that it will grant his request and show him the “Ultimate Mystery.” Yog-Sothoth claims that it has granted this request only eleven times to beings from Earth, with five of these being men or resembling men. What were the other six? Elder Things or Deep Ones? The Great Race in the Cone Shaped Beings? Mi-Go or the Insects from Shaggai? Or some other, yet undiscovered species from Earth’s distant past or future?

Chapter IV concludes with Yog-Sothoth giving Carter one last choice – to return back to his own Space-Time or to peer beyond the Veil of reality. Next time we will journey with Carter beyond this Veil. Thank you – Fred.