Tag Archives: Lin Carter

Additional Information on the Spawn of Cthulhu and their Existence in Our Space-Time

cthulhu_and_his_children_by_liquidnerve

Cthulhu and his Children by Liquid Nerve (www.deviantart.com)

As previously mentioned, Lovecraft cites that Cthulhu produced one offspring named Shaurash-ho (see below). I can find very little (almost no) information on this entity but based on its relationship with Cthulhu, it more than likely is one of the members of it’s “Spawn” and was produced asexually.

According to the  Ponape Scriptures Cthulhu had three sons and one daughter with an entity called Idh-yaa; the sons are  Ghatanothoa, Ythogtha and Zoth-Ommgg and the daughter is Cthylla.  I have already discussed in detail Ghatanothoa in previous articles and I will cover the others separately in future articles. However, for now I want to review this “family” dynamic of Cthulhu.

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First, it must be emphasized that the terms father, mother, sons and daughter are highly anthropomorphic and not applicable to Cthulhu and it’s Spawn. However, it is hypothesized that these terms can be useful in distinguishing sexual reproduction from asexual reproduction such as the budding or fragmentation of Cthulhu to produce Shaurash-ho. While it is highly unlikely that sexual reproduction among these entities functions in a similar capacity as it does in Terran life, a distinction can be made between a mixing or fusion of two entities (such as Cthulhu and Idh-yaa) and the “budding” or production of a new entity from another (such as Shaurash-ho being the asexual progeny of Cthulhu).

Second, as was previously proposed, it is hypothesized that Cthulhu and its Spawn may be composed of an extra-dimensional form of plasma (a form of ionized gas).  In our universe plasma is very common but typically found in stars where temperatures reach 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degree Celsius).  So why didn’t Cthulhu or its spawn boil away the Pacific Ocean when it emerged from R’lyeh?

The_cthylla_supplication_by_hawanja-d4cy7rl

The Cthylla Supplication by Hawanja (www.deviantart.com)

Based on the latest iterations of string theory, there are 10 spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension. Of the 10 spatial dimensions, there are the 3 we are familiar with and 6 that are unknown to our senses.  These ideas lead to a family of different theories called M-theory, which predicts a large number of universes (the multiverse).  How many universes?  According to the mathematics of M-theory 10500 different universes may exist (The Grand Design by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, 2010), each with a different set of natural laws; some may be similar to ours and some may be very different. Some of these other universes may be entirely devoid of matter but comprised of energy (dark energy or otherwise).  In contrast, some universes may contain no matter or energy.  In order to exist in our space-time Cthulhu and its Spawn may draw energy from one of the matterless universes and then dump the generated heat into a cold, void-like universe that has no matter or energy.

As shown in the figure below, we exist in a 3 spatial / 1 temporal universe or membrane (also known as a brane).  Most of the material that makes up our matter (electrons, quarks, photons, etc.) are made of open strings which are attached to our brane and can not leave. However, gravity (in the form of gravitons) are closed strings (loops) that can pass from one brane to another through the bulk or material between the two branes; all of this is based on the mathematical predictions of String Theory.

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Theoretical illustration of two universes as predicted by M-theory (www.abyss.uoregon.edu)

Based on the theoretical arrangement described above, two hypotheses can be proposed in describing the fundamental nature of Cthulhu and its Spawn.  The first hypothesis is that Cthulhu and its Spawn enter our universe through the “curled up” higher dimensions, tapping into other branes for the extremely large amounts of energy needed for hyperspace travel (more on that below).  An alternate hypothesis is that they enter our universe through points of intense gravity (in the heart of stars or even black holes). As previously mentioned gravitons can travel from one brane to another so maybe Cthulhu and its Spawn utilize these “gravity strings” as carrier waves to travel from one universe to another.

While theoretically it is possible to travel through hyperspace, the amount of energy needed to accomplish this is beyond our technology at this time.  For example to simply probe into hyperspace, at least 1019 billion electron volts of energy is required.  The Large Hadron Collider, which is the worlds largest and most powerful particle collider, can only generate 103 billion electron volts of energy.  Thus, it will be sometime before humanity and generate the amount of energy needed to seriously investigate hyperspace.  However, for Cthulhu and its Spawn, the generation of such large amounts of energy may be possible.

cthulhu_spawn_by_ianllanas_Dev

Cthulhu Spawn by Ian Llanas (www.deviantart.com)

Finally, I want to provide this quote from the physicist Paul Davies, which I found in Michio Kaku’s book Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universe, Time Warps and the 10th Dimension, on what we could do if we manged to unify the known forces (electromagnetic, gravity, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force) into one “superforce” :

“…we could change the structure of space and time, tie our own knots in nothingness, and build matter to order. Controlling the superforce would enable us to construct and transmute particles at will, thus generating exotic forms of matter. We might even be able to manipulate the dimensionality of space itself, creating bizarre artificial worlds with unimaginable properties. Truly we should be lords of the universe.”

Such a passage certainly reminds one of Cthulhu and its Spawn or of Yog-Sothoth.

Next time I will be initiating a discussion on the tale “In the Walls of Eryx” written by H.P. Lovecraft and Kenneth Sterling. Thank you – Fred.

cthulhu_spawn___workup_ii_by_chillier17-d32bey7 Cthulhu Spawn by Chillier 17 (www.deviantart.com)

 

 

More on the Nature of Cthulhu and its Spawn

cthulhu_quick_paint_by_calavera666

Cthulhu by Calavera (www.deviantart.com)

This short article will briefly discuss the expanded relationship between Cthulhu and Ghatanothoa and a little more on the origins of Cthulhu and its Spawn. Similar to Cthulhu, Ghatanothoa is trapped in a sunken island at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. While the legend of Ghatanothoa in von Junzt’s Black Book and the associated events in the Cabot Museum of Archaeology in Boston as outlined in “Out of the Aeons” are very similar to those documented in “The Call of Cthulhu,” there is no direct mention or identified connection between Ghatanothoa and Cthulhu in either tale. However, later text identified by Lin Carter has cited in a number of instances that Ghatanothoa is one of the three “sons” of Cthulhu, the other two being Ythogtha and Zoth-Ommgg.

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Ythogtha (by Grumble Putty)

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Zoth Ommgg (by Zach Geller)

In Lovecraft’s original “family tree of the Old Ones” the only cited offspring of Cthulhu is Shaurash-ho and based on the lineage, this offspring was created through asexual reproduction. However, according to Carter’s research into the Ponape Scriptures there was a sexual union, genetic or otherwise, between Cthulhu and an entity named Idh-Yaa. This sexual union occurred on, in or around Xoth, a green star located in the constellation of Taurus. In fact Cthulhu and its Spawn are said to have originated from Xoth. Again, this information is provided in the Ponape Scriptures as cited by Carter and not in the Black Book, which was cited by Lovecraft.

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 Idh-Yaa (from http://www.lovecraft.wiki.com)

It is particularly interesting that the binary star system of Xoth is described as a green star since humans have never documented a truly green star. Any star that appears to be green is a result of an optical illusion.  For example, the multiple star system of the Antares has a particularly bright red star that makes some of other stars look green. While a truly green star is not impossible it is highly improbable in our universe. Thus, this provides evidence that Cthulhu and related entities are not residents of our space-time.  While Xoth may be in the Taurus constellation, this section of space-time may be an access point to another multiverse.

Another interesting point is that as mentioned in a previous article Cthulhu and its Spawn are composed of matter different than  what is found in our space-time and I hypothesize their matter may be somewhat plasma based (composed of ionized gas). While rare on Earth, plasma is the most common form of matter in our space-time with most of it found within stars. Thus, it may be that Cthulhu and its related spawn enter our space-time through the stars themselves and to remain in some stable, yet plastic, form draw energy from stars. However, as I previously mentioned, if Cthulhu and its Spawn are plasma-based and can exist in stars then they must be millions of degrees in temperature.  For example, the core of our sun can reach more than 27 million degrees Fahrenheit, which is 15 million degree Celsius, (www.space.com). Thus, how can Cthulhu and its Spawn exist on or in Earth, or at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, without burning it up? More on that in a future article.

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Rays of Xoth by Astra888leddher (www.deviantart.com)

In addition to providing more information on the plasma-based nature of Cthulhu, next time I will also present evidence that many of the entities cited as being associated or related to Cthulhu, such Idh-Yaa and their associated offspring, are in fact members of the Spawn of Cthulhu.  However, this next article may not be posted until sometime toward the end of the month.

Next week I will be attending the NecronomiCon in Providence Rhode Island. I will be giving a talk on the “Lovecraftian Cosmos.” In addition I will be on a panel discussing Lovecraft and Science. If you are attending, I would love to meet you. If you cannot attend I place on posting short articles and photos while at the convention on both this WordPress page and the Facebook page “Lovecraftian Science.” Thank you – Fred.

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The Spawn of Cthulhu, Part 3 – Additional notes

As previously mentioned there is very little information on the spawn of Cthulhu.  We know they somewhat resemble their Master or Parent Cthulhu and that they came down to Earth with him approximately 350 million years ago.  They battled with the Elder Ones and peace was achieved.  The spawn built the great city of R’lyeh, which then mysteriously sunk into the Pacific Ocean around 300 million years ago.  To this day, Cthulhu and his spawn lie entombed in R’lyeh asleep and sending dreams to the sensitive.

City of R’lyeh by the great Lovecraftian artist John Coulthart

Very little is known about the spawn of Cthulhu; however Hiraku Takeoka, a gentleman from Japan who I have met on Facebook, made a very good point (see below).  Lin Carter, a well known writer of fantasy, science-fiction and horror, contributed to the Cthulhu Mythos, which included the Xothic Cycle.  Mr. Carter was well known to flesh out or “fill in the gaps” in Lovecraft’s mythology but I want to focus this article on the spawn of Cthulhu.

Chaosium’s The Xothic Legend Cycle, Lin Carter’s Mythos fiction (edited by Robert M. Price)

Specifically, according to Mr. Carter’s stories Cthulhu brought a number of other entites to Earth from Xothic, a green binary star.   Some of these entities included Cthulhu’s “mate” Idh-yaa, and their progeny – Zoth-Ommog, Ghatanothoa, Ythogtha and Cthylla (The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana by Daniel Harms).  While this description makes it sound like Cthulhu is the father of one happy “Old One family”, this is a very deceptive interpretation.

Ghatanothoa by the talented artist Mike Bukowski

Biological concepts based on sexual reproduction, such as parents, progeny and siblings, more than likely do not apply to Cthulhu and his spawn.  Nothing is known about the reproduction of these entities; however, the prevailing hypothesis is that they reproduce primarily through mitosis.  That is, they reproduce similar to basic cell division.  Once the cell or individual attains a certain size or volume they split.  It is not known if the conventional Darwinian mechanics of natural selection apply to Cthulhu and his relatives but more than likely Cthulhu is the largest, and thus leader of the spawn.

Following this line of logic, Mr. Takeoka made an excellent point that these “family members” of Cthulhu’s may be larger representatives of the spawn.  Again, if Cthulhu is the largest and oldest of the spawn, he is the leader.  The other family members must be other leaders of the spawn (subordinates to Cthulhu) and have grown to such a size to be named, known and worshipped by humanity and other races in our universe.

Another incredible drawing of a spawn of Cthulhu by KingOvRats

To conclude, not much is known of the spawn of Cthulhu.  However, to date, they are the most “alien” of entities that we reviewed on this blog site.  One thing is for sure, the spawn of Cthulhu is very distinct from the next group of entities we will be discussing – the Deep Ones.  Thank you and Happy Holidays!  Fred

Necronomicon Convention talk on the Biology of the Old Ones, Part 3 – Taxonomy of the Old Ones (August Derleth)

Before Robert M. Price worked on his taxonomic nomenclature of the Old Ones, August Derleth proposed a means of classifying these entitles.  In fact, according to Richard L. Tierney’s seminal paper, The Derleth Mythos (Discovering H.P. Lovecraft edited by Darrell Schweitzer – 1995) Derleth was the person who established the concept of the Mythos.

Tierney and others such as Joshi and Murray have clearly identified and separated Derleth’s ideas and concepts from those of Lovecraft, which has been associated with varying degrees of criticism.  I do not want to dwell on this criticism of Derleth, there are three points I want to make in this regard.  First, Derleth took Lovecraft’s idea of a materialistic, uncaring Universe where man is insignificant and modified (or distorted) it into one where good (Elder Gods) battles evil (Old Ones) similar to Christianity, where humanity is the focus or celestial “prize”.  Second, Derleth’s taxonomy of categorizing the Old Ones was based on the classical (Greek) concept of four elements.  Third, Derleth, along with others such as Lin Carter, were accused of explaining too much; the Mythos thrived on mystery and confusion and ironing out all of the details takes away from the Mythos itself.  For the sake of this brief article I will focus only on the second point – that Derleth’s taxonomy was based on the four elements.

Essentially, Derleth said that  Lovecraft’s enitites could be categorized through the “elemental forces”  of fire, water, earth and air.

www.particleadventure.org
http://www.particleadventure.org

Reading Tierney’s article you get the impression that the focus of this idea was primarily based on Cthulhu and his spawn being aquatic creatures and thus being water entities.   However, if Cthulhu is a water being, why is he imprisoned in water?  Wouldn’t it be better to hold Cthulhu in, say, the center of a star, fire thus defeating or containing water?  Another point Tierney makes is that Hastur is considered to be an air-based entity yet he is thought to reside in the bottom of the Lake of Hali; is Hastur imprisoned in the bottom of the lake similar to Cthulhu being imprisoned in the Pacific Ocean?  Wouldn’t it be better to hold Hastur in the earth or in a deep cave on some remote world?  Yog Sothoth, Nyarlathotep and Shub-Nigguarth are all squeezed into the earth category.  Finally, since there was no entities within the fire category, Derleth created Cthugha to fill that niche.

While some authors have used this system of taxonomy for the Old Ones, its generally not thought much of now a days.  This is primarily due to the fact that such a classification system tries too hard to explain away what these entities are (evil manifestations of these elemental forces hell-bent on the destruction and/or consumption of humanity).  In addition, if one is going to develop a classification system of the Old Ones, it should be based primarily and foremost on Lovecraft’s writings.  As I attempt to make the case in my presentation, a classification system should be based on what little we know about these entities’ biology and their relation to life on Earth .

In conclusion, while Derleth’s taxonomic system does not seem to be satisfactory, it must be said, which I’m sure everyone recognizes, that Derleth should receive some credit to keeping Lovecraft’s stories in the public eye and being one of the co-founders of Arkham House.  Thank you.

Fred Lubnow