Hypotheses on the Origin of the Deep Ones

Cover art from Shadows Over Innsmouth (edited by Stephen Jones) – artwork by Dave Carson, Martin McKenna and Jim Pitts

Through the development of the pervious articles on the Deep Ones, as well as some conservations I have had with a number of individuals, I have come up with a series of hypotheses on the origin of these entities.  Before the hypotheses are described, I want to outline some assumptions I have used for their development.  First, the hypotheses assume that the Elder Ones are the creators of complex life on Earth (At the Mountains of Madness).  Second, we are only considering HPL’s story The Shadow Over Innsmouth in exploring the origins of the Deep Ones.

1.  The Deep Ones are members of the Spawn of Cthulhu – Under this hypothesis the Deep Ones came down to Earth along with the Spawn of Cthulhu.  While the Spawn can be considered to be members of Cthulhu’s “aristocratic court of R’lyeh”, the Deep Ones can be thought of as the “minions” to Cthulhu.  Under this hypothesis, the Deep Ones are just as alien as the Spawn and Cthulhu himself.  I do not support this hypothesis since the Deep Ones can freely breed with humans.  Again, this is why humans and Deep Ones are in the same genus because they can breed.  Even if their offspring are sterile, they must be very similar on a genetic level for offspring to be produced in the first place.  In addition, this breeding is very conventional for Terran life.

Compare this to when Lavinia Whateley gave birth to Wilbur and his “twin” in The Dunwich Horror.  The sexual act, birth and offspring in that tale are very different and not at all similar to the Terran biological mechanisms employed in The Shadow Over Innsmouth.  Thus, while Yog-Sothoth had “hybrid” offspring with a human this was an extremely rare event, which was an inter-dimensional mating, not following the rules of Terran biology.  Thus, I feel the Deep Ones are of Terran origin and not aliens from other planets or dimensions like the entites they worship. 

A Member of the Spawn Worshipping Mighty Cthulhu (by the great Steve Maschuck)

2.  The Deep Ones were bioengineered by Others (possibly by the Spawn of Cthulhu) – The Elder Ones created complex (eukaryotic cells) life on Earth.  Their “failed experiments” crawled away and evolved on their own (most of life on Earth).  The “pinnacle” of Terran evolution, at least from the perspective of the Elder Ones, are the Shoggoths, which can be thought of as super-eukaryotic organisms.  Were the Deep Ones another experiment conducted by the Elder Ones, or perhaps even by the Spawn of Cthulhu?

Again, I do not subscribe to this hypothesis due to the fact that humans and Deep Ones can breed.  If the Elder Ones made the Deep Ones in an entirely different experiment, they could not breed with humans.   Shoggoths and humans do not breed (at least there is no known case of such breeding).  If the Spawn of Cthulhu bioengineered the Deep Ones, possibly with technology borrowed or stolen from the Elder Things, their creations would probably have been at least partially made of the same alien matter as themselves.  In any event, I find this hypothesis unlikely.

Old One (also known as an Elder One or Elder Thing).  Were they the creators of the Deep Ones?  (artwork by Jeff Remmer; www.templeofdagon.com)

3.  The Deep Ones and humans share a common ancestor they way that humans and the Great Apes do – I find this hypothesis more plausible since (and I know I sound like a broken record but this is a REALLY big deal in terms of species, evolution and taxonomic relationships), humans and Deep Ones can inter-breed.  It only takes a few changes in the millions of genetic code to “convert” one species into another.  For example, below is a figure showing that two simple substitutions in a critical gene used for speaking and language separates us from most of the Great Apes.  Now this figure is for only one gene (FOXP2) but the taxonomic relations are fairly close.  Are the Deep Ones an off-shoot of humans or is the separation further back, below the separation between the Great Apes and the monkeys?  Probably not since breeding can occur between humans and Deep Ones.  In other words, Deep Ones are more closely related to humans than the Great Apes are.

Relationship among various organisms for the FOXP2 gene (from http://www.bio.miami.edu)

4.  Humans are part of the Deep One Life Cycle – While this hypothesis may seem very strange, it would explain the ease with which reproduction occurred between Deep Ones and humans.  It would also explain the general absence of breeding among the Deep Ones (at least none has been documented).  Perhaps this is a bizarre form of neoteny and metamorphosis, where the Deep Ones must go to land to breed and then go back into the sea (sort of a reverse, saltwater amphibian?).  Is humanity nothing more than the tadpole stage of the Deep Ones life cycle?  If this hypothesis is true then we are Deep Ones and they are us.  There are no hybrids – humanity returns to the sea to truly complete its life cycle.

Innsmouth by the talented artist Tom Jenkins

To test any of these hypotheses, some DNA and RNA samples need tp be collected from Deep Ones.  Some additional tissues / protein analyses would help as well but some gene sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic comparisons should be made.  Maybe such a comparison between humans and Deep Ones would end up like that scene in Prometheus where they are comparing the “engineer” DNA to human DNA – “My God – it’s us – it’s everything!”

Deep Ones by Dave Studzinski (from HPL, 2nd printing)

Scene from Prometheus, 2012 by Ridley Scott (on the Blu-Ray; extra / modified scene)

Next time I will be talking about the Shoggoths of Innsmouth.  Thank you – Fred

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27 thoughts on “Hypotheses on the Origin of the Deep Ones

  1. Yes. I like the neoteny angle for purposes of fiction…and I realize you’re using tSOI as the model. I’m not as married to that as you are. The question of when and how homo sap became the naked ape is answered by several of these hypotheses (again, I’m on about using any concepts for the purposes of fiction). I like the neoteny angle having humanity as the tadpole stage for almost any of the more mobile Lovecraftian beasties, almost a Niven-esque take, where the goul, deep one, Leng zombie is the protector stage…essentially option 5 (all of the above). Depends on whether you postulate that anything on this planet started here.
    Following with interest.

    1. Hey Moderan – thank you for the interesting ideas and good input! It is a fascinating idea that humanity may be “larval” stage of not only the Deep Ones but of other Lovecraftian entities as well. You are correct, I am a very “Terran-bound” person, particularly in reference to how endosymbiosis was an important evolutionary mechanism in the development of eukaryotic cells and eventually multi-cellular life. Thanks again for the input. Fred.

  2. Sorry, did you say that the Deep ones and humans can interbreed?

    Only kidding. Very interesting article. Thank you very much. It is amazing how when one aporoaches HP’s myths from a rational point of view these almost seem plausible… I mean given the fact that to date neither science nor religion have managed to explain the reason we are here everything goes….

    1. LOL…no problem. As I was writing the article it sounded like a parrot in my mind! I agree, its fascinating how HPL had such a unique philosophy and how this spilled into his writing. Thanks for the input – Fred.

  3. My own suspicions is that early Cthulhu-worshiping humans from Theem’hdra underwent controlled mutation so that they could be closer to their gods, and survive the sinking of their land. Maybe they are now only capable of breeding when a member of their root stock is involved?

    Grotesque mutations are a large part of the Mythos, and is a main theme of “The Shadow Over Insmouth.” Why go anywhere further to explain the Deep Ones?

    Maybe something similar produced the first Ghouls.

    1. Thank you – I like that idea – that humanity wanted to be more in the image of their God so they wanted to alter themselves!

      Mutations certainly come up in a lot of other Mythos stories by other writers and I may touch on those of those in an upcoming article. Thank you – Fred

  4. I love #4. Reminds me of “After Many a Summer” by Huxley, but especially of Deep Space (Robert Abernathy), where it turns out that free fall for a period of weeks and months is to humans what iodine and drought are to axolotls.

    Btw, what are the copyright restrictions for the ideas that you propose on this site? The default “can’t do anything without talking to you and settling something out,” “feel free to use it but mention your name somewhere,” or something else? I haven’t been able to find anything on your blog about that.

    1. Thank you Ryan; I am glad you enjoy the site. You make a good point, I do need to put some type of statement on the site. However, I would say, please feel free to use the information as long as you cite the WordPress page. Thanks again – Fred.

      1. Thanks!

        As for the possibility that humans are part of the life cycle of other Lovecraftian beings (or even just Deep Ones), what is particularly interesting are a couple of passages in Lovecraft’s story The Mound (which he ghostwrote for Zealia Bishop) which state that when Cthulhu came to Earth, he brought humans with him.

        To save you the trouble of looking them up:

        “None knows what it [Tulu-metal] is or where it occurs in Nature, and the amount of it on this planet came down from the stars with the people when great Tulu, the octopus-headed god, brought them for the first time to this earth.”

        “Zamacona learned that the people of K’n-yan were almost infinitely ancient, and that they had come from a distant part of space where physical conditions are much like those of the earth. All this, of course, was legend now; and one could not say how much truth was in it, or how much worship was really due to the octopus-headed being Tulu who had traditionally brought them hither and whom they still reverenced for aesthetic reasons.”

        So Cthulhu came with starspawn, and apparently he also came with humans.

        And humans turn into Deep Ones. So we see why Deep Ones love Cthulhu so much; if humans = Deep Ones, he brought them to Earth.

        To make everything perfect, I’d say that starspawn are like horrible wasp-illithids that lay their eggs in fully-developed Deep Ones. The eggs hatch and eat some of their host’s body and integrate with the rest. The Deep Ones see this as a totally natural step in their life cycle (for the worthy Deep Ones) that is a step toward apotheosis. Really, though, they’re just part of the starspawn life cycle insofar as starspawn need them to lay eggs in (which is why Cthulhu and Co. brought us along).

      2. Hey Ryan – very interesting and cool ideas! It would be great to see them in some stories. For me, I am more of a At the Mountains of Madness (ATMOM) “disciple”. In there it is very explicit that humans, like all complex life on Earth, were the unintentional outcome of failed experiments with prokaryotic life by the Elder Ones. To them, humans were generated as a “joke or mistake”, as identified in ATMOM. To them, the successful Terran experiment was the generation of the Shoggoths. I cite two passages below from ATMOM that provide evidence for this idea:

        “There could now be no further merciful doubt about the nature of the beings which had built and inhabited this monstrous dead city millions of years ago, when man’s ancestors were primitive archaic mammals, and vast dinosaurs roamed the tropical steppes of Europe and Asian.”

        and

        “It interested us to see in some of the very last and most decadent sculptures a shambling, primitive mammal, used sometime for food and sometimes as an amusing buffoon by the land dwellers [terrestrial Elder Ones], whose vaguely simian and human foreshadowings were unmistakable.”

        Also, as I previously mentioned, we are made of the same matter at Elder Ones (we are of the same universe or dimension). In contrast, Mi-Go and Spawn of Cthulhu are made of different matter and come from outside; very different from us. Thus, I think we are considered the “unsuccessful experimental cousins of the Shoggoths”. However, that does not mean that “others” did not experiment or tinker with the primate or human genome once this eukaryotic line of life was well established! Also, the fact that there is variability in the human / Deep One hybrids on when or if they become full Deep Ones indicates there may have been tinkering with sub-groups of humans is specific areas of the world. Again, thank you for the great comments! Fred

      3. I generally prefer ATMOM and Shadow Out of Time myself. I feel like the Cthulhu Mythos was sort of building to those particular works even though they weren’t necessarily his last, a kind of Dark Tower to his Stephen King.

        I was fascinated when I read The Mound, because no such origin had ever been referenced in any of the Lovecraft-derived stories that I had read.

        In the vain attempt to reconcile these two accounts (one might say that developing a true and thorough Lovecraftian canon is madness-inducing itself!), however, have you read Inherit the Stars? It’s the first book in a series by James P. Hogan where humans are the descendants of hominids that were taken off-planet by aliens and left to develop on their own until they were forced to evacuate to our planet in a crisis that left them without the infrastructure necessary to keep from sliding into barbarism (and then begins the new prehistory).

        So perhaps the experiments were performed off-world (and perhaps modern abductions are not part of a mi-go experiment as Delta Green would have you believe, but instead the latest step in the process that created the Deep Ones) and then their products were released “into the wild.” The variability in Deep One hybrids is based on how strong one’s descent is from these experiments. Even humans whose lineage is entirely unaffected are still capable of reproducing with the Deep Ones but it isn’t as smooth of a process.

        Oh, and do you know if anyone has suggested that the Deep Ones are time-traveling posthumans who may or may not have been stranded in our (and their) past?

        On a side note, am I the only one who thinks that ATMOM and TSOOT feel pretty optimistic? Mostly I’m coming from passages like the one that follows, where despite all of their differences the narrator is still able to identify with the Old Ones and sympathize with them (not to mention the ability of the Yithians in TSOOT to adapt to human society, and Peaslee and so many other beings to interact with the Yithians and each other with apparently no problem).

        ” It was not fear of those four missing others—for all too well did we suspect they would do no harm again. Poor devils! Alter all, they were not evil things of their kind. They were the men of another age and another order of being. Nature had played a hellish jest on them—as it will on any others that human madness, callousness, or cruelty may hereafter dig up in that hideously dead or sleeping polar waste—and this was their tragic homecoming. They had not been even savages-for what indeed had they done? That awful awakening in the cold of an unknown epoch—perhaps an attack by the furry, frantically barking quadrupeds, and a dazed defense against them and the equally frantic white simians with the queer wrappings and paraphernalia … poor Lake, poor Gedney… and poor Old Ones! Scientists to the last—what had they done that we would not have done in their place? God, what intelligence and persistence! What a facing of the incredible, just as those carven kinsmen and forbears had faced things only a little less incredible! Radiates, vegetables, monstrosities, star spawn—whatever they had been, they were men!”

      4. Hey Ryan – I will have to read Inherit the Stars…sounds good! Time traveling Deep Ones and extraterrestrial breeding experiments – cool stuff and great hypotheses for some new stories! There is a bit of optimism in HPL stories depending on your point of view. For example in The Dunwich Horror Dr. Armitage does manage to defeat the spawn of Yog-Shothoth and Lovecraft does equate the Elder Ones to human scientists (see some of my early articles on that). I think from a larger perspective HPL liked to convey that nothing lasts forever. Civilizations rise and fall. Again, thank you for your insight! Fred.

  5. I think you are far too hasty in dismissing the idea that the Cthulhu Spawn are responsible for creating the Deep Ones. As I see it, the other-dimensional nature of the Spawn is really neither here nor there in this matter. They may be from another universe and thus composed of a different kind of matter, but the mere fact that they can exist in our universe at all implies one of three things:
    A) The matter of which they are composed is really not all that different from our own.
    B) The matter of which they are composed represents a ‘higher octave’ of the matter we are familiar with. In other words, their matter is a superior form of our own and simply possesses additional properties.
    C) The Spawn are magically/psychically/scientifically powerful enough that they can overcome the problems involved in living in a universe composed of alien (to them) matter that operates under different/hostile physical laws.

    Any of the above possibilities would go a long way towards reducing the difficulties in somehow interbreeding with humans (if that’s what they did.) I would note that in ‘The Dunwich Horror’ HPL has the (immaterial and extra-dimensional) Old Ones interbreeding with a human, and the ‘Necronomicon’ passage quoted in the story clearly shows that this is not a unique occurrence. The same passage also states that the Old Ones are somehow related to Cthulhu but are even MORE alien. In such a case, if the Old Ones can breed with humans under certain circumstances, I see no reason the Cthulhu Spawn couldn’t.

    But I don’t think any direct Cthulhuoid/human cross-breeding occurred. My reasoning is that, according to the sources we have, Cthulhu and his children were entombed and dormant long before humans evolved. This further implies that, whatever involvement they had in the creation of the Deep Ones, it was at one or more removes. The fact of the Deep Ones worshipping Cthulhu does not necessarily imply that he created them. My theory is that the Deep Ones were created by intermediaries to provide Cthulhu with a loyal race of servitors. These intermediaries could belong to any of several attested Mythos races known to be scientifically advanced, including the Serpent Men, the Mi-Go, or even renegade Elder Things. It’s also possible that the Deep Ones were created by an otherwise unattested race that has since become extinct.

    To my mind that last possibility makes the most sense. If the myths recounted in ‘The Call of Cthulhu’ have any reliability, then Great Cthulhu knew in advance that he and his race would be entering a period of dormancy lasting millions of years and that he would require outside assistance to free himself when the time came. This alone is reason enough for him to want a race of servitors who could remain active while he slept, a race that would be ‘native’ to Earth and thus better-adapted to their appointed tasks. So creating/engineering a race of ‘proto-Deep Ones’ makes perfect sense (unless there happened to be an existing race that could be ‘covered’ to the cause, of course). If the Cthulhu Spawn really were unable to create a servitor race on their own, the Elder Things certainly could. This may be the real explanation of the war between the two species: we humans may think it was about territory, maybe the Elder Things thought so at the time, but perhaps what the Cthulhu Spawn REALLY wanted was the Elder Things’ technology, specifically their genetic engineering capabilities.

    So my theory is that the Deep Ones we know are really just the latest in a long line of Cthulhu’s servant races whose primary task is simply surviving until the time comes to free their master. This means that as conditions on Earth change, they also have to change, either by mutating themselves or by creating am entirely new successor race to take over the job. (In which case, does the now-obsolete older race allow itself to die out naturally? Does it commit mass suicide? Does the new servant race kill off the older one? Does the older race simply withdraw to the depths or possibly join Cthulhu in his aeon-long sleep in R’lyeh?) In this scenario, only the first of these servitor races would have been directly created by Cthulhu and his children, so there is no need to worry about Cthulhu/human genetic compatibility in the first place.

    I also wonder, since the Deep Ones apparently use Shoggoths, if perhaps the Cthulhu Spawn might have had something to do with the Shoggoths’ rebellion agains their creators?

    1. Hey Frater Julianus – very good points and concepts; great information for some innovative stories. However, for my hypotheses I try to stay as close to Earth-bound biology as possible. I do not see the Deep Ones using some type of Lamarckian evolution by directing mutations in their own populations. Now mechanisms of evolution may be very different for Elder Ones, Mi-Go and Spawn (I discussed this in my talk at the Necronomicon back in August and will come back to these ideas later) but Earth-bound life, excluding the biological robots the Shoggoths, functions through Darwinian evolution. This includes humans and since humans can breed with Deep Ones they are genetically similar and thus come from the same stock. This is why I include the Deep Ones in that. I think the Deep Ones worship the Spawn and Cthulhu, just like some human cults do. I do not think the Spawn or Cthulhu produced Deep Ones or humans – my hypothesis is that these entities could care less about these lesser beings. They only see both the Deep Ones and humans as a means to end – to get out of their slumbering prison. HPL eluded to the fact that the Spawn may reproduce through simple mitosis so I do not see them interested in the mechanisms of evolution on Earth. Again, just my take on it – as I mentioned in a previous article, I think the Mi-Go have more of an interest in messing with humans and their evolution.
      Again, thank you for your input. Very creative stuff! Fred.

      1. Glad you liked it, Fred! I think the difference in our approaches is due to the fact that you’re a biologist whereas I’m a Magician who is also scientifically literate. Personally, since the Mythos includes so many entities who violate our laws of physics, let alone biology, adhering too closely to known Earthly biological processes seems like a needless limitation.

        As I see it, the real ‘horror’ in the scientific horror genre comes from the discovery that the world is not a ‘natural’ process, or even a random one, but that it IS deliberately directed by Others for their own unguessable purposes. In such a universe, the very idea of human free will is the real cosmic joke or mistake.

        Talking of ideas, if the Deep Ones are the latest in a long series of servitor races, each of which somehow creates its successor, maybe the reason they are interbreeding with humans is that WE are their successors as servants of Cthulhu? Remember at the end of ‘The Shadow over Innsmouth’ it is stated that they have designs on a ‘greater city’ next time. Bear in mind that the Deep Ones are the only one of HPL’s races that he shows actually ‘messing with’ human evolution. The Yithians and Mi-Go only interact with select individuals, either for research or for security/espionage purposes. I’ve never much liked the current idea of the Mi-Go as secretly manipulating humanity: I think it owes more to modern UFO/conspiracy myths than Lovecraft.

        I look forward to more installments of your blog.

      2. yes…that is one of the many reasons why I love Lovecraft’s work so much. Science is a useful tool within the confines of our nature universe or dimension. Something from outside may have very different nature laws and I have always found it interesting in how protagonists try to deal with such outré entities and concepts. The next few articles will be focused more on math, physics and other dimensions. Thanks again for the input!

  6. 5. The transformation to Deep One is induced by a sexually transmitted organism. The offspring of a human/Deep One union are born human in appearance and change later in life when the taint inside them is activated.

    1. another interesting idea…..would this truly be an “organism” like a protozoan or a bacteria or would it be something on the “borderline” of life like a prion or virus?

  7. The theory put forth in “Mask of the Other” (see http://www.amazon.com/Mask-Other-Greg-Stolze-ebook/dp/B006NOC730) is that Deep Ones, with the advantage of many more billions of years of evolution, are sort of genetic predators. Their genes can dissassemble and assimilate any earthly genome because they are (metaphorically) using a modern Pentium chip to hack something made of vacuum tubes. So the deep trenches could have Deep One/squid hybrids, crosses with blobfish… lot of ugly possibilities there.

    -G.

    1. hhhhhmmmmmm…..very very interesting….the fusion of the human and Deep Ones gametes results in the Deep One alleles being dominant over the human alleles. I have always wonder edif there is a phenotypic and/or genotypic difference between hybridized Deep Ones and “pure” Deep Ones…in this case, it wouldn’t matter due to the predatory genome of the Deep Ones???

    2. Hey Greg – I just realized that your book has been on my wish list for a while….you just gave me the perfect reason to pick it up on my Kindle today! Thanks! Fred

  8. I think the DNA of the Deep Ones actively replaces the subjects dna with its own. a slow metamorphosis into the Deep Ones. I doubt it carries anything of the subject along with it. It is just like a virus that consumes the host to replicate the Deep One. This explains the ability of the Deep Ones to transform humans into Deep Ones I think other aliens have adaptive DNA that randomly uses subject and alien DNA to build a creature, explaining why none of them look the same and are widely varied.

    1. Hey Paul:
      Very interesting hypothesis! I see the Deep Ones as another branch of Earth’s tree (or shrub) of life. They were the by-product of the Elder Things rejected experiments (like humans and the rest of life on Earth). To me this would explain how they can easily mate with humans and produce offspring. However, an interesting question is: is there a genetic difference between hybrid deep ones or “full” deep ones (are there even “full” genetic deep ones?).
      Fred

  9. 2 things that came to me while reading this article:

    1. In Zadok Allen’s account, he relates “Them things liked human sacrifices. Had had ’em ages afore, but lost track o’ the upper world after a time.”

    2. In Chapter 5, near the end, one of the Deep Ones themselves (the narrator’s grandmother) states that Deep Ones “had lived since before man ever walked the earth.”

    These two details complicate matters.

    If the Deep Ones need to come to the surface to reproduce, it is hard to imagine that they would have ever “lost track” of the “upper world”, given how important it would be to their species’ survival.

    As for my second point: if the Deep Ones predate humanity, then humans can’t be the “tadpole” stage of their life cycle.

    Now, it’s possible that humans are descended from Deep Ones, somewhat validating Theory #3. However, this has to be reconciled with the Elder Things’ hieroglyphs which depict them as being the creators of humanity. Perhaps the Elder Things created humanity by meddling with Deep One biology, reactivating the latent simian genes in the Deep One genome (they must be descended from primates), while suppressing the ichthyic ones.

    However, I’m inclined to regard the Deep Ones’ belief that they predate humanity as a mistake on their part. Given the evidence – their ability to interbreed with humans while possessing radically different morphology from all the other primates – they are almost definitely an offshoot of humanity, rather than humanity being an offshoot of them. Humans more closely resemble the primate stock than the Deep Ones, and it is easier to conceive of a human offshoot adopting ichthyic qualities than an ichthyic primate evolving then producing an offshoot that reverts back to more baseline simian features (though with the Elder Things involved, it’s possible).

    The Deep Ones may derive a kind of racialist pride in seeing themselves as being more ancient than (or even the ancestor of) humans, so this falsehood may have been nurtured by their culture. They also might even have a kind of envy and fear of humans. According to Zadok Allen’s story, the Deep Ones boast of being able to wipe out humanity if they so chose, but nothing in Shadow/Innsmouth goes towards validating that claim. They are given ample reason to do so after Innsmouth is raided and their city below Devil’s Reef is torpedoed, yet they don’t retaliate. Perhaps after having “lost track o’ the upper world”, they had found us multiplied and far more advanced than in the age where that sentiment had originated.

    I think the Deep Ones’ desire to interbreed with humanity may result from their envy of our intelligence. I can imagine them marvelling at our technology, our weaponry and other innovations. Indeed, we never see them wielding any kind of complex machinery. In fact, much is made by the narrator of their large and unwieldily hands, some almost lacking in opposable digits – a trait which seems to go hand in hand with some primate’s faculty to build things. They might hope that interbreeding will incorporate our intellect into their own gene pool.

    1. Hey Jack – good points. This is why I have structured my discussions about the Deep Ones as a series of hypotheses. There must be some close evolutionary relationship between humans and Deep Ones and some biochemical analyses would be required to confirm this. The big question I have is are there hybrids and “true” Deep Ones or are Deep Ones only produced by the mating of humans and Deep Ones. Also, please note that I have a series of more recent articles on Lovecraftian evolution on the site with a newer article on the evolution of the Deep Ones. Thanks again.
      Fred

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